BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 11

November 2012

Volume 34, Issue 11

Pages 915–1001

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 11/2012

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290052

      Control of osteogenesis by the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways in vivo: The cover image shows a transverse section through a Xenopus tropicalis metamorphosing tadpole phalange. This histological section was stained with Kernechtrot to reveal cell bodies (pink) and Alcian blue to show the cartilage (blue). The circular cartilaginous shaft is surrounded by a layer of bone mineralized matrix (grey ring) secreted by adjacent osteoblasts. On pages 953–962 Marcellini et al. review recent experimental evidence showing that the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways functionally interact as cells differentiate from osteochondroprogenitors to osteoblasts and osteocytes, in the context of the developing vertebrate embryo. BMP signalling specifies multipotent mesenchymal cells into osteochondroprogenitors which are subsequently driven towards the osteoblastic fate by the Wnt pathway. In osteoblasts, both pathways promote differentiation, albeit with notable mechanistic differences. Finally, in osteocytes, the Wnt and BMP pathways exert opposite effects on the control of bone resorption by osteoclasts.

      Cover by S. Marcellini.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
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  3. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 11/2012 (pages 916–917)

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290051

  4. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. Ex laboratorio

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      Teaching peers to talk to peers : The time has come for science to create a respectable, full-time career track for “peer-peer communication teachers” (pages 918–920)

      Armando Chapin Rodríguez

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scientists should learn to communicate effectively with their colleagues through long-term, sustained training instead of ad hoc, one-off “interventions” that may or may not occur during graduate school or postdoctoral work. Since such training may place unreasonable demands on research advisors, institutions should create career opportunities for “peer-peer communication teachers.”

    2. Ideas & Speculations

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      Does human evolution in different latitudes influence susceptibility to obesity via the circadian pacemaker? : Migration and survival of the fittest in the modern age of lifestyle-induced circadian desynchrony (pages 921–924)

      Cathy A. Wyse

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200067

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      The variable photoperiods of Northern latitudes challenge the entrainment capacity of the circadian pacemaker, which evolved under constant photoperiods in Equatorial regions. Entrainment to the erratic photoperiods facilitated by artificial light presents an additional challenge. Metabolic dysfunction and obesity are potential consequences of such desynchronization of circadian and environmental rhythms.

    3. Think again

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      On the cause of aging and control of lifespan : Heterogeneity leads to inevitable damage accumulation, causing aging; Control of damage composition and rate of accumulation define lifespan (pages 925–929)

      Vadim N. Gladyshev

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200092

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      What the causes of aging are and which factors define species lifespan are key questions in the understanding of aging. The author describes a concept that heterogeneity leads to inevitable damage accumulation causing aging, and that control of damage composition and rate of accumulation define lifespan.

    4. Commentary

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      Ohno's hypothesis and Muller's paradox: Sex chromosome dosage compensation may serve collective gene functions (pages 930–933)

      Donald R. Forsdyke

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200103

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      Muller found halving gene dosage, as in males with one X chromosome, did not affect specific gene function. Why then was dosage “compensated?” This paradox was solved by invoking collective gene functions such as self/not self discrimination afforded by protein aggregation pressure. This predicts female susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

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      Neurospora as a model to empirically test central hypotheses in eukaryotic genome evolution : Why this fungal genus offers promising opportunities (pages 934–937)

      Carrie A. Whittle and Hanna Johannesson

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200110

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The fungus Neurospora comprises a novel model for testing hypotheses involving the role of sex and reproduction in eukaryotic genome evolution. Its variation in reproductive mode, lack of sex-specific genotypes, availability of phylogenetic species, and young sex-regulating chromosomes make research in this genus complementary to animal and plant models.

  5. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. Recently in press

      Should Y stay or should Y go: The evolution of non-recombining sex chromosomes (pages 938–942)

      Sheng Sun and Joseph Heitman

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200064

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      People might think that the evolutionary forces acting upon sex chromosomes and mating type loci would necessarily differ dramatically between multicellular animals and unicellular fungi, alga, or slime molds. However, a series of studies over the past decade have contributed to reveal a number of shared features among these systems.

    2. Review essays

      Early life stress and telomere length: Investigating the connection and possible mechanisms : A critical survey of the evidence base, research methodology and basic biology (pages 943–952)

      Idan Shalev

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200084

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      Telomeres, protective caps at the ends of each chromosome, are an established biological clock for cellular aging. New research suggests that telomeres link early-life stress with later-life disease. This paper outlines the evidence base and questions for mechanism, methodology, and basic biology critical to the clinical translation of telomere science.

    3. Control of osteogenesis by the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways in vivo : Cooperation and antagonism between the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways as cells differentiate from osteochondroprogenitors to osteoblasts and osteocytes (pages 953–962)

      Sylvain Marcellini, Juan Pablo Henriquez and Ariana Bertin

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The canonical Wnt and Smad-dependent BMP signaling are critical for skeletal cell specification and differentiation, but the way these pathways affect each other remains largely unknown. We discuss recent data showing how Wnt and BMP signaling interact to generate osteochondroprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, in the context of the developing embryo.

    4. Genome instability: Does genetic diversity amplification drive tumorigenesis? (pages 963–972)

      Andrew B. Lane and Duncan J. Clarke

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200082

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Acute genome instability is a period of rapid volatility in which a catastrophic failure within a single cell cycle results in aneuploidy and complex chromosome rearrangements. If tolerated by the progeny, the massive genome damage can be exploited by cancer cells to gain a proliferative advantage and adaptability.

    5. Chaperone discovery (pages 973–981)

      Shu Quan and James C. A. Bardwell

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200059

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      With new methods of chaperone discovery, the question as to whether we have discovered all the chaperones that exist is very pertinent: there may well be important new surprises on the horizon. The image depicts one method of monitoring protein folding, namely the coupling of protein folding to the host stress response. This review cover is the past, present, and future of chaperone discovery.

    6. New genes expressed in human brains: Implications for annotating evolving genomes (pages 982–991)

      Yong E. Zhang, Patrick Landback, Maria Vibranovski and Manyuan Long

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200008

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      Regardless of recent findings that new genes are important for human brain functions, we highlight that new genes are still generally under-characterized in functional studies and that new gene annotation is inconsistent in current practice. We propose an integrative approach to annotate new genes based on functional and evolutionary genomics.

    7. Methods, Models & Techniques

      Synthesizing artificial cells from giant unilamellar vesicles: State-of-the art in the development of microfluidic technology (pages 992–1001)

      Sandro Matosevic

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200105

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      Microfluidics has emerged as a powerful technology for the synthesis of artificial cells from giant unilamellar vesicles by dramatically improving control over size, lamellarity, internal contents, and membrane composition and addressing sophisticated cellular functions such as protein synthesis.

  6. BiotecVisions

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BiotecVisions 2012, October (pages A1-A8)

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290053

  7. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290054

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