BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 8

August 2012

Volume 34, Issue 8

Pages 627–712

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
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      BioEssays 8/2012

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290036

      Immunological insights from fish. Among vertebrates, teleosts comprise particularly diverse and ancient lineages that can provide alternative immunological solutions to biological and environmental challenges. For example, Atlantic cod is the first species reported that has lost the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, one of the antigen presentation systems previously believed to be conserved among all jawed vertebrates, and this loss coincides with a distinct immune gene repertoire. In this issue (pages 648–651), Star and Jentoft propose several scenarios, with different selective assumptions, that may have lead to the emergence of these phenomena. Through comparative studies of immune genes in multiple teleost lineages, we may be able to infer a causal link between the loss of MHC II and the emergence of such distinct immune gene repertoire. Additionally, these studies can identify which biological and environmental factors have promoted their evolution and provide a deeper understanding of the selective processes that have affected the vertebrate immune system.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
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  3. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
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      BioEssays 8/2012 (pages 630–631)

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290035

  4. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. Idea to watch

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    3. Hypotheses

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      Reversible Ser/Thr SHIP phosphorylation: A new paradigm in phosphoinositide signalling? : Targeting of SHIP1/2 phosphatases may be controlled by phosphorylation on Ser and Thr residues (pages 634–642)

      William's Elong Edimo, Veerle Janssens, Etienne Waelkens and Christophe Erneux

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201100195

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      Phosphoinositide phosphatases such as SHIP1 and 2 are important signalling enzymes implicated in human diseases. In addition to tyrosine phosphorylation (implicated in the classical targeting mechanism of SHIP1/2 to the plasma membrane) these enzymes may also be phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, which also seems to be important for their targeting and for determining their substrate specificity.

    4. Ideas & Speculations

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      The evolution of dynamin to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis : Speculations on the evolutionarily late appearance of dynamin relative to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (pages 643–647)

      Ya-Wen Liu, Andrew I. Su and Sandra L. Schmid

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200033

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      Whereas clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) exists in all eukaryotic cells, we first detect classical dynamin in Ichthyosporid, a single-cell, metazoan precursor. Based on a key functional residue in its pleckstrin homology domain, we speculate that the evolution of metazoan dynamin coincided with the specialized need for regulated CME during neurotransmission.

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      Why does the immune system of Atlantic cod lack MHC II? (pages 648–651)

      Bastiaan Star and Sissel Jentoft

      Version of Record online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200005

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      MHC II, a major feature of the adaptive immune system, is lacking in Atlantic cod, and there are different scenarios (metabolic cost hypothesis or functional shift hypothesis) that might explain this loss. The lack of MHC II coincides with an increased number of genes for MHC I and Toll-like receptors (TLRs).

    6. Commentary

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      Longevity and the long arm of epigenetics: Acquired parental marks influence lifespan across several generations (pages 652–654)

      Shanshan Pang and Sean P. Curran

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200046

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      A recent study reported that longevity in Caenorhabditits elegans can be inherited over several generations. This is probably achieved through the following epigenetic mechanism: inherited demethylated histones at some central loci, such as miRNA, transcription factors or signaling regulators affect the expression of certain genes leading to the longevity phenotype.

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      Domain shuffling and the increasing complexity of biological networks (pages 655–657)

      Sandro J. de Souza

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200006

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      Domains can spread among proteins in a process called domain shuffling and this has been identified as one of the major mechanisms leading to the formation of new proteins throughout evolution. This process has an impact on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks as it may create new hubs and also increase interconnectivity.

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      Assessing biodiversity funding during the sixth extinction (pages 658–660)

      George Amato and Rob DeSalle

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200048

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      Funding for understanding biodiversity on this planet has had a checkered and unsatisfactory history. There have been some true successes in developing models for assessing biodiversity, but satisfactory governmental and international support has been piecemeal and unsatisfactory. A true solution to the biodiversity crisis will require greater attention from governmental and international funding agencies.

  5. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. Review essays

      Resurrecting ancient animal genomes: The extinct moa and more (pages 661–669)

      Leon Huynen, Craig D. Millar and David M. Lambert

      Version of Record online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200040

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      New DNA sequencing technologies and the recovery of ancient DNA from hair and coprolites suggests future major developments in ancient genomics. And the production of a normal mouse from an egg frozen at −20°C for 16 years suggests that the recreation of now extinct animals might one day be possible.

    2. microRNAs as novel regulators of stem cell pluripotency and somatic cell reprogramming (pages 670–680)

      Meng Amy Li and Lin He

      Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200019

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      microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation plays an important role in regulating the maintenance and induction of embryonic stem cell pluripotency, providing an additional layer of control over transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Elucidating miRNA functions will shed new light on the biology of pluripotent stem cells and somatic cell reprogramming.

    3. New vistas for treatment of obesity and diabetes? Endocannabinoid signalling and metabolism in the modulation of energy balance (pages 681–691)

      Christopher Lipina, Wiebke Rastedt, Andrew J. Irving and Harinder S. Hundal

      Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200031

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      The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Its pathological overactivation seems to be associated with dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Targeting the ECS may therefore provide a therapeutic means for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders.

    4. Problems & Paradigms

      The free-radical theory of ageing – older, wiser and still alive : Modelling positional effects of the primary targets of ROS reveals new support (pages 692–700)

      Thomas B. L. Kirkwood and Axel Kowald

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200014

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      The free-radical theory is more complex than commonly recognized. Spatial effects need to be considered; e.g. mitochondrial DNA, a main target of ROS, is attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where most radicals are produced. This influences the likely effectiveness of antioxidants (AOx) and of turnover processes to control cellular damage.

    5. Rethinking Hardy–Weinberg and genetic drift in undergraduate biology (pages 701–710)

      Joanna Masel

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201100178

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      The curriculum of teaching the different topics in population genetics should be re-ordered to take into account both the status of each topic among experts, and pedagogical considerations. Students first need to achieve proficiency with frequencies and probability before they are taught selection, mutation and sampling drift.

  6. Reports & Opinion

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. Correspondences

  7. BiotecVisions

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
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      BiotecVisions 2012, July (pages A1-A8)

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290037

  8. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. Reports & Opinion
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290038

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