BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 9

September 2012

Volume 34, Issue 9

Pages 715–818

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 9/2012

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290041

      Menin is a central hub controlling mixed lineage leukemia. Mixed lineage leukemia is an aggressive acute leukemia that is refractory to current therapies, evidenced by a poor prognosis in patients. On pages 771–780 of this issue, Thiel et al. review recent findings that highlight potential avenues for targeted therapy to treat this disease. Chromosomal translocations in the MLL gene lead to the expression of MLL fusion proteins, which upregulate a subset of wild-type (WT) MLL target genes to drive leukemogenesis. Menin, a DNA-binding scaffold protein, coordinates WT MLL and MLL fusion protein recruitment to target genes, both of which are essential for maintaining leukemic transformation. The recently solved co-crystal structure of menin in complex with a portion of MLL that is found in both WT MLL and MLL fusion proteins (see cover) highlights menin as a central hub and potential therapeutic target in mixed lineage leukemia.

      Cover by Austin T. Thiel.

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. BioEssays 9/2012

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chromosomal elements control replication timing, condensation and stability. Mammalian chromosomes contain three types of cis-acting elements, origins of replication, centromeres, and telomeres, that function to maintain their proper number and structure. On pages 760–770 of this issue Mathew Thayer reviews recent discoveries that suggest that mammalian chromosomes contain a fourth type of element, referred to as ‘inactivation/stability centers’. Disruption of these ‘inactivation/stability centers’ leads to late replication, an under-condensed state during mitosis, and unattached kinetochores during metaphase (red). Fully condensed chromosomes are shown in green and mitotic spindles are shown in blue. These new observations suggest that mammalian chromosomes contain four distinct types of cis-acting elements that function to ensure proper replication, condensation, segregation and stability of individual chromosomes.

      Backcover by M. Thayer

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
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  4. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 9/2012 (pages 716–717)

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290040

  5. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. Ex laboratorio

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      Putting proteins in context : Scientific illustrations bring together information from diverse sources to provide an integrative view of the molecular biology of cells (pages 718–720)

      David S. Goodsell

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scientific illustrations, such as this cross-section through part of an E. coli cell, can give an impression of the complexity of a cell's interior and of the way its macromolecules are arranged.

    2. Ideas & Speculations

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      Organelle size control systems: From cell geometry to organelle-directed medicine (pages 721–724)

      Wallace F. Marshall

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200043

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      Organelles are reaction vessels containing metabolic pathways. As in a chemical factory, the size of the reaction vessels limits the rate of product formation. Organelle size is tuned to metabolic needs, hence reprogramming organelle size could be a novel therapeutic strategy as well as a new tool for metabolic engineering.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A positive role for yeast extrachromosomal rDNA circles? : Extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circle accumulation during the retrograde response may suppress mitochondrial cheats in yeast through the action of TAR1 (pages 725–729)

      Anthony M. Poole, Takehiko Kobayashi and Austen R. D. Ganley

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200037

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      Yeast mitochondria frequently mutate, and some dysfunctional mitochondria out-compete wild-type versions. The retrograde response enables yeast to tolerate dysfunction, but also produces ribosomal DNA circles (ERCs). We propose that ERC accumulation increases expression of the rDNA antisense gene, TAR1, which counteracts spread of respiration-deficient mitochondria in matings with wild-type yeast.

    4. Commentary

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      Are expression profiles meaningless for cancer studies? (pages 730–733)

      Bertrand Jordan

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200074

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      Expression signatures obtained from tumour samples are widely used to characterise tumour subtypes and to provide prognostic information. This commentary, based on a recent paper, questions the scientific validity of such signatures as a means of understanding the underlying biology.

  6. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. Recently in press

      Endogenous retroviruses in mammals: An emerging picture of how ERVs modify expression of adjacent genes (pages 734–738)

      Luke Isbel and Emma Whitelaw

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200056

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      A recent paper in Genome Research has found that intronic ERVs can disrupt transcriptional termination of the host gene. The authors, Li and colleagues, found this by developing a genome wide sequencing strategy that identifies the integration sites of ERVs in related mouse strains.

    2. Review essays

      The lipid raft hypothesis revisited – New insights on raft composition and function from super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (pages 739–747)

      Dylan M. Owen, Astrid Magenau, David Williamson and Katharina Gaus

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200044

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      We review how new super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods such as photoactivated localisation microscopy (PALM), stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and structured illumination microscopy (SIM) are being used to study membrane organisation. We especially focus on ordered-phase lipid microdomains (lipid rafts) and their role in regulating protein distribution and diffusion.

    3. Intratumoral stages of metastatic cells: A synthesis of ontogeny, Rho/Rac GTPases, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, and more (pages 748–759)

      Xosé R. Bustelo

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200041

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      We summarize recent data about the origin of metastatic traits, the routes that regulate the intratumoral migration and subsequent dissemination of metastatic cancer cells outside the primary tumor mass, and the tumor extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms that favor metastasis development. The therapeutic implications of this new information are also discussed.

    4. Mammalian chromosomes contain cis-acting elements that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes (pages 760–770)

      Mathew J. Thayer

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200035

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mammalian chromosomes contain four types of cis-acting elementsthat function to regulate chromosome-wide replication timing, mitotic condensation and stability of individual chromosomes: origins of replication, telomeres, centrosomes and loci such as Xist and ASAR6 functioning as “inactivation/stability centers”.

    5. Menin as a hub controlling mixed lineage leukemia (pages 771–780)

      Austin T. Thiel, Jing Huang, Ming Lei and Xianxin Hua

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In MLL fusion protein-induced leukemias, menin is a central hub due to its role in recruiting WT MLL and MLL-FPs to target genes. Menin also links C-Myb/LEDGF to the MLL N-terminus, underscoring menin's central role. Targeting menin may be especially effective due to its hub role in MLL fusion leukemias.

    6. Circadian clocks in changing weather and seasons: Lessons from the picoalga Ostreococcus tauri (pages 781–790)

      Benjamin Pfeuty, Quentin Thommen, Florence Corellou, El Batoul Djouani-Tahri, Francois-Yves Bouget and Marc Lefranc

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200012

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      How circadian clocks keep accurate time of the day even though they are entrained by a variable day/night cycle has been little studied. Recent studies of the microscopic green alga Ostreococcus tauri have revealed a remarkably simple strategy allowing reliable clock operation in all weather and seasons.

    7. Problems & Paradigms

      Toward the virtual cell: Automated approaches to building models of subcellular organization “learned” from microscopy images (pages 791–799)

      Taráz E. Buck, Jieyue Li, Gustavo K. Rohde and Robert F. Murphy

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200032

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      Computational methods can be used for constructing generative statistical models of cells as well as subcellular structures and proteins within them. Such models can provide realistic geometry and initial protein locations to simulations in order to better understand cellular and subcellular processes.

    8. The genome in space and time: Does form always follow function? : How does the spatial and temporal organization of a eukaryotic genome reflect and influence its functions? (pages 800–810)

      Zhijun Duan and Carl Anthony Blau

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200034

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      Present evidence supports the idea that, in general, the spatial and temporal organization of a eukaryotic genome reflects and influences its function. However, the answer as to whether genome architecture is a hallmark of cell identity remains elusive.

    9. Evolution in response to climate change: In pursuit of the missing evidence (pages 811–818)

      Juha Merilä

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Climate change is imposing intensified selection pressures on organisms, but studies demonstrating genetic adaptation to climate change mediated selection are still scarce. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that both genetic and ecological constrains may often limit populations' abilities to adapt and predispose them respond with range shifts and phenotypic plasticity.

  7. BiotecVisions

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BiotecVisions 2012, August (pages A1-A8)

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290043

  8. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. BiotecVisions
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290044

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