BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 9

September 2013

Volume 35, Issue 9

Pages 759–839

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 9∕2013

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three-dimensional chromosomal neighborhoods. It has been recently discovered that chromosomes are segmented in a series of megabase-wide domains that are spatially segregated away from each other in the three-dimensional space of the nucleus. On pages 818–828 of this issue, Nora et al. discuss how this folding pattern relates to other discrete chromosomal domains: not only at the level of chromatin structure but also in terms of long-range transcriptional regulation. The emerging picture is that spatial partitioning of chromosomes refl ects their modular organization in defined chromatin blocks and regulatory landscapes. To illustrate this, one can think of a chromosome as a series of chromatin yarns, the color of each yarn symbolizing the different chromatin and regulatory states of each topologically associating domain. Picture by Kevin Howan and Elphege Nora.

  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 9∕2013

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370092

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
  4. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 9∕2013

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370094

  5. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. Idea revisited

      You have free access to this content
  6. Idea revisited

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. Idea revisited

      You have free access to this content
  7. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. Hypotheses

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model (pages 764–770)

      William R. Rice, Urban Friberg and Sergey Gavrilets

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300033

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We recently advanced a new biological model of homosexuality that is based on transgenerational inheritance of sex-specific epigenetic marks from a parent to an offspring of opposite sex. Here, we describe a general framework to test the model using human stem cells from adult hetero- and homosexual individuals.

    2. Ideas & Speculations

      Mountaineering pericytes – A universal key to tissue repair? (pages 771–774)

      Marisa Karow

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent studies show that microvessel-associated pericytes exhibit an unprecedented degree of plasticity and implicate these cells as a physiological cellular source or therapeutic target for tissue repair. They have potential for therapeutic applications in areas ranging from muscle degeneration to heart infarction and CNS injury.

    3. Enlightening the brain: Linking deep brain photoreception with behavior and physiology (pages 775–779)

      António M. Fernandes, Kandice Fero, Wolfgang Driever and Harold A. Burgess

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300034

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Several extra-ocular tissues can detect and respond to photic stimuli. Here, we discuss the identity and behavioral role of deep brain photoreceptors revealed by recent experiments using zebrafish. We hypothesize that an ancient link between non-visual opsins and neurohormonal systems continues to operate in mammals.

  8. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. Recently in press

      SNP ascertainment bias in population genetic analyses: Why it is important, and how to correct it (pages 780–786)

      Joseph Lachance and Sarah A. Tishkoff

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300014

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The specific genetic variants that are analyzed can have important implications for studies of population genetics. Using data from African hunter-gatherers, we demonstrate how high-coverage whole genome sequences and ascertained SNPs on genotyping arrays yield different results.

    2. Parental programming: How can we improve study design to discern the molecular mechanisms? (pages 787–793)

      Virginie Lecomte, Neil A. Youngson, Christopher A. Maloney and Margaret J. Morris

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300051

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recommendations for improving the different steps of studies investigating mechanisms of parental programming

    3. Review essays

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Are human endogenous retroviruses pathogenic? An approach to testing the hypothesis (pages 794–803)

      George R. Young, Jonathan P. Stoye and George Kassiotis

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The human genome contains numerous and repetitive human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), relics of ancestral infection. Their mere presence in the genome, as well as distinct nucleic acid intermediates of retroviral replication and proteins produced by intact open reading frames may cause or contribute to pathology through the mechanism depicted.

    4. β-catenin at the centrosome : Discrete pools of β-catenin communicate during mitosis and may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression (pages 804–809)

      Bertrade C. Mbom, W. James Nelson and Angela Barth

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300045

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and centrosomes. Proteins at the cell cortex and in Wnt signaling that involve β-catenin also regulate cell division, indicating cross-talk between different β-catenin pools in the cell at mitosis.

    5. Replenishing our defensive microbes (pages 810–817)

      Luke K. Ursell, William Van Treuren, Jessica L. Metcalf, Meg Pirrung, Andrew Gewirtz and Rob Knight

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Exposure to microbes is known to train our immune system to recognize pathogens and promote host health. Here, we discuss how modern behaviors, including Cesarean sections, antibiotic use, and limited exposure to animals, might derail our microbiota from its ancestral trajectory, and discuss suggested methods to replenish beneficial human microbes.

    6. Problems & Paradigms

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Segmental folding of chromosomes: A basis for structural and regulatory chromosomal neighborhoods? (pages 818–828)

      Elphège P. Nora, Job Dekker and Edith Heard

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      It has been recently shown that chromosomes are segmented in a series of discrete Topologically Associating Domains, or TADs, which in mammals have an average size of 1 Megabase. Here we discuss how such an arrangement may provide a basis for domain-wide control of chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genome reduction as the dominant mode of evolution (pages 829–837)

      Yuri I. Wolf and Eugene V. Koonin

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300037

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We propose a general model of genome evolution that includes two distinct phases. A short phase of rapid innovation leads to increase in genome complexity. A much longer reductive phase results in genome simplification through loss of genetic material caused either by a quasi-neutral ratchet or by adaptive genome streamlining.

  9. Cause to reflect

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. Dr. Kathleen Drew-Baker, “Mother of the Sea”, a Manchester scientist celebrated each year for half a century in Japan (pages 838–839)

      Constance Harris, Kazuhiko Matsuda and David B. Sattelle

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      2013 marks the 50th annual Drew festival in Uto City, Japan, celebrating the work of University of Manchester botanist, Dr. Kathleen Drew-Baker. Her insight into the reproductive biology of algae was the key to efficient farming of the seaweed “nori” which is a familiar component of Japanese food.

  10. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Idea revisited
    8. Insights & Perspectives
    9. Prospects & Overviews
    10. Cause to reflect
    11. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370095

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