BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 4

April 2014

Volume 36, Issue 4

Pages 331–430

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 4∕2014

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370041

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      Evolutionary adaptation without sex. On pages 335–345, Michael Seidl and Bart Thomma argue that sexual reproduction is not a prerequisite for evolutionary success. They postulate that presumed asexual organisms, such as certain fungi, have developed different means to compensate for the lack of sex. The mechanisms employed by these organisms include single nucleotide polymorphisms caused by replication errors, horizontal DNA transfer and transposable elements. Furthermore, genomic rearrangements resulting in translocation, duplication and deletion of genetic material can help these organisms adapt to changing environments.

  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 4∕2014

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370042

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
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  4. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 4∕2014 (pages 6–7)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370043

  5. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. Idea to watch

    2. Hypotheses

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sex or no sex: Evolutionary adaptation occurs regardless (pages 335–345)

      Michael F. Seidl and Bart P. H. J. Thomma

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300155

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      Sex is a strong driver of genomic variation, which enables adaptation. Yet in many species, particularly in fungi, sex has never been observed. So how do presumed asexual organisms adapt? We hypothesize that asexuals evolved means to generate genomic diversity, mainly by genomic rearrangements, to compensate for the lack of sex.

    3. Ideas & Speculations

      Beyond transcriptional silencing: Is methylcytosine a widely conserved eukaryotic DNA elimination mechanism? (pages 346–352)

      John R. Bracht

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300123

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      In this work, I discuss the recent discovery of methylcytosine and hydroxymethylcytosine as DNA elimination signals in the ciliate Oxytricha. I also discuss the implications of these findings for apoptotic and DNA repair pathways in multicellular eukaryotes.

    4. Epigenetic programing of depression during gestation (pages 353–358)

      Stephanie C. Dulawa

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300089

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      How does the gestational environment transduce vulnerability to depression to the fetus? The in utero environment alters gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms, which mediate long-term effects on physiology and behavior without changing DNA sequence. I examine recent work suggesting that gestational environment programs depression in adult offspring via epigenetics.

    5. Think again

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A paternal environmental legacy: Evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line (pages 359–371)

      Adelheid Soubry, Cathrine Hoyo, Randy L. Jirtle and Susan K. Murphy

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300113

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      Animal and epidemiologic studies on various environmental exposures suggest that transgenerational epigenetic changes can be induced through the paternal germ line, ultimately affecting health status of the offspring. This essay suggests the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during spermatogenesis or other early developmental processes.

    6. Explaining general anesthesia: A two-step hypothesis linking sleep circuits and the synaptic release machinery (pages 372–381)

      Bruno van Swinderen and Benjamin Kottler

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300154

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      Volatile general anesthetics such as isoflurane produce loss of behavioral responsiveness in all animals. We propose that this can be explained as a two-step process: activation of endogenous sleep pathways at low doses followed by attenuation of synaptic release at the drug concentrations required for surgery.

  6. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. Review essays

      Clustered and genome-wide transient mutagenesis in human cancers: Hypermutation without permanent mutators or loss of fitness (pages 382–393)

      Steven A. Roberts and Dmitry A. Gordenin

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300140

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      Some environmental agents and APOBEC cytidine deaminases result in transient hypermutation by causing lesions in ssDNA regions within double strand break repair intermediates and at replication forks. In human cancers such multiple lesions produce mutation clusters, also termed kataegis. Hypermutation of multiple simultaneously formed ssDNA regions may accelerate cancer development.

    2. Problems & Paradigms

      You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Transfer and functional consequences of dietary microRNAs in vertebrates: Concepts in search of corroboration : Negative results challenge the hypothesis that dietary xenomiRs cross the gut and regulate genes in ingesting vertebrates, but important questions persist (pages 394–406)

      Kenneth W. Witwer and Kendal D. Hirschi

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300150

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      A report that foreign microRNAs from the diet rival endogenous vertebrate miRNAs in abundance and function has been refuted by multiple independent studies, although low-level uptake may occur. We present the current evidence for and against the paradigm-challenging but uncorroborated dietary xenomiR hypothesis, and discuss remaining questions in the field.

    3. Opening the genetic toolbox of niche model organisms with high throughput techniques: Novel proteins in regeneration as a case study (pages 407–418)

      Mario Looso

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300093

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      Regeneration of complex structures is a capability mastered by a small number of niche model organisms. Although such organisms are poorly annotated, current technologies allow the extensive use of such organisms. Representative studies give evidence of alternative stem cell maintenance pathways, new protein families, and new stem cell markers.

    4. Methods, Models & Techniques

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      Transcriptional mechanisms of cell fate decisions revealed by single cell expression profiling (pages 419–426)

      Victoria Moignard and Berthold Göttgens

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201300102

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      New technologies are enabling the study of gene expression at the single cell level. Recent single cell studies have already impacted on stem cell and developmental biology by allowing for the characterisation of rare populations, commitment events and regulatory networks.

  7. Meetings

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. Unravelling the developmental regulatory networks in early animals : Workshop at the Evangelische Akademie Tutzing, 23rd–26th September 2013 (pages 427–430)

      Fabian Rentzsch and Maja Adamska

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201400012

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      Development, life cycle evolution and immunity were among the topics discussed at a recent meeting in Tutzing dedicated to the biology of the ‘basal’ metazoan taxa Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Cnidaria.

  8. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Insights & Perspectives
    7. Prospects & Overviews
    8. Meetings
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201370044

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