BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 38 Issue 11

November 2016

Volume 38, Issue 11

Pages 1059–1184

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 11∕2016

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201670111

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three methods, three groups, one cell type: Human serotonergic neurons. On pages 1123–1129 Krishna C. Vadodaria and Fred H. Gage discuss three unique methods for generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro. Thus far, methods for generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro had met with limited success, but within the last year, three groups independently published protocols for generating serotonergic neurons, directly induced from fibroblasts (iN) and from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Overlapping and distinct features of each method are discussed to highlight their utility for studying serotonergic neurotransmission in the context of neurological disorders such as major depression. The cover image shows an artistic stylization, with an edgeglow effect, of high-magnification confocal images of the same serotonergic neuron immunopositive for serotonin (green, top panel), tryptophan hydroxylase (red, middle panel), and the neural marker MAP2 (blue, lower panel).

  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 11∕2016

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201670112

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      What is my impact? Another rant against the undead? No! (page 1059)

      Andrew Moore

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600215

  4. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays 11∕2016 (pages 1060–1061)

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201670113

  5. Thoughts & Opinion

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. Idea to watch

    2. Idea revisited

  6. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. Hypotheses

      Autoimmunity and the microbiome: T-cell receptor mimicry of “self” and microbial antigens mediates self tolerance in holobionts : The concepts of “holoimmunity” (TcR-mediated tolerance for the holobiont) and “holoautoimmunity” (loss of tolerance for the holobiont) are introduced (pages 1068–1083)

      Robert Root-Bernstein

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600083

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      T-cell receptors (TcR) and antibodies are selected to mimic “self” antigens. The microbiome avoids immunity by mimicking “self” antigens and TcR (“holoimmunity”). Pathogens, however, are complementary to “self,” TcR, and the microbiome. A pathogen that also mimics “self” can trigger autoimmunity to the host, TcR, and microbiome simultaneously (“holoautoimmunity”).

    2. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa-secreted protease modulates host intrinsic immune responses, but how? (pages 1084–1092)

      Zhenyu Cheng

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600101

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II-secreted protease IV elicits an immune response in Arabidopsis through a novel signaling pathway that involves the heterotrimeric G protein complex and a scaffolding protein for mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Intriguingly, the sensory complex and the mechanisms by which it mediates the protease IV response remain elusive.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Can heavy isotopes increase lifespan? Studies of relative abundance in various organisms reveal chemical perspectives on aging (pages 1093–1101)

      Xiyan Li and Michael P. Snyder

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600040

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      Our current hypothesis states that aging progression is accompanied with a general decline in the living organism's ability to incorporate heavy isotopes. Averting this decline would retard aging or promote longevity. The green blocks indicate the effective relative abundance of common heavy isotopes in human bodies.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Histone deacetylase inhibitors for cancer therapy: An evolutionarily ancient resistance response may explain their limited success (pages 1102–1110)

      John A. Halsall and Bryan M. Turner

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600070

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bacteria secrete histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) that disable eukaryotic competitors through hyperacetylation of gene regulating proteins. Recent results show that human cells mount a transcriptional response that mitigates HDACi toxicity. We hypothesize that this response is evolutionarily ancient, mediated by signaling pathways and mutated in cancers sensitive to HDACi therapy.

    5. Ideas & Speculations

      p53 in the game of transposons (pages 1111–1116)

      Annika Wylie, Amanda E. Jones and John M. Abrams

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600115

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      p53 mutations commonly occur in human cancers. p53 genes act to contain retrotransposons, a class of elements that mobilize throughout the genome. When p53 is defective, these transposons are derepressed leading to unstable genomic states that provoke cancers, inflammation, and perhaps other sporadic diseases.

    6. Think again

      R.I.P. to the PIP: PCNA-binding motif no longer considered specific : PIP motifs and other related sequences are not distinct entities and can bind multiple proteins involved in genome maintenance (pages 1117–1122)

      Elizabeth M. Boehm and M. Todd Washington

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600116

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      PIP motifs, RIR motifs, and MIP motifs mediate interactions with the replication protein PCNA, the translesion synthesis polymerase Rev1, and the mismatch repair protein Mlh1, respectively. We argue that these motifs are not distinct entities, they have overlapping specificities, and they can bind multiple proteins involved in genome maintenance.

  7. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. Recently in press

      Generating human serotonergic neurons in vitro: Methodological advances (pages 1123–1129)

      Krishna C. Vadodaria, Maria C. Marchetto, Jerome Mertens and Fred H. Gage

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600127

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three recently published methods (2016) describe distinct ways to generate human serotonergic neurons in vitro. Transdifferentiation or direct conversion technology (Gage lab and Feng lab), and iPS cell neuralization or differentiation (Zhang lab) have been utilized in this process. We discuss key aspects and highlight distinct components of each method.

    2. Review essays

      On-site remodeling at chromatin: How multiprotein complexes are rebuilt during DNA repair and transcriptional activation (pages 1130–1140)

      Thaleia Papadopoulou and Holger Richly

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600094

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Remodeling of multiprotein complexes has emerged as a new concept of timing signaling processes at chromatin. Here we review the function of the H2A-ubiquitin binding protein ZRF1 in multiprotein complex remodeling. ZRF1 operates as an adaptor protein presumably in conjunction with remodeling machines to modify the subunit composition of protein complexes.

    3. The evolution of mating-type switching for reproductive assurance (pages 1141–1149)

      Bart P. S. Nieuwenhuis and Simone Immler

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600139

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mating in microorganisms is only possible between cells of opposite mating types. If suitable mating partners are rare, mating-type switching through rearrangements at the genomic level may evolve as a mechanism to ensure reproduction. We discuss the possible costs and benefits leading to the evolution of mating type switching.

    4. Problems & Paradigms

      Pioneer factors and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors interact dynamically: A new perspective : Multiple transcription factors can effect chromatin pioneer functions through dynamic interactions with ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (pages 1150–1157)

      Erin E. Swinstead, Ville Paakinaho, Diego M. Presman and Gordon L. Hager

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600137

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      During dynamic assisted loading (DynALoad), an initiator factor recruits ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler complexes to open closed chromatin regions and assists the binding of a second transcription factor. Contrary to the pioneer factor model, any transcription factor can potentially initiate this process or function as the assisted protein.

    5. Transposable elements: Self-seekers of the germline, team-players of the soma (pages 1158–1166)

      David Haig

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600125

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The germ track is the cellular lineage of germ cells. It has two segments: a pluripotent germ-stem that has somatic cells as well as germ cells as descendants and a dedicated germline. Transposable elements benefit from transposition in the germ track but not from transposition in the soma.

    6. The gut-skin axis in health and disease: A paradigm with therapeutic implications (pages 1167–1176)

      Catherine A. O'Neill, Giovanni Monteleone, John T. McLaughlin and Ralf Paus

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600008

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The gut and skin engage in bidirectional mechanisms of communication. These mechanisms include, the microbiota, diet, neuroendocrine and immune systems and the central nervous system. It is therefore not surprising that any malfunction along this gut-skin axis can have profound effects on both organs. This is exemplified in disease.

    7. Managing shifting species: Ancient DNA reveals conservation conundrums in a dynamic world (pages 1177–1184)

      Jonathan M. Waters and Stefanie Grosser

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201600044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ancient DNA analyses have revealed several cases of self-introductions of exotic species in response to human-mediated native biodiversity declines and ecosystem change. We discuss the potential impacts of self-introduced lineages on indigenous biota, and argue that it is essential that conservation managers recognize and respond to these rapid biotic shifts.

  8. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents and highlights of this issue
    6. Thoughts & Opinion
    7. Insights & Perspectives
    8. Prospects & Overviews
    9. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201670114

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