• Additive hazards;
  • Direct effect;
  • Dynamic covariates;
  • Event history analysis;
  • Indirect effect;
  • Internal time-dependent covariates;
  • Path analysis;
  • Survival analysis;
  • Total effect;
  • Treatment effect


We propose a method for analysis of recurrent event data using information on previous occurrences of the event as a time-dependent covariate. The focus is on understanding how to analyze the effect of such a dynamic covariate while at the same time ensuring that the effects of treatment and other fixed covariates are unbiasedly estimated. By applying an additive regression model for the intensity of the recurrent events, concepts like direct, indirect and total effects of the fixed covariates may be defined in an analogous way as for traditional path analysis. Theoretical considerations as well as simulations are presented, and a data set on recurrent bladder tumors is used to illustrate the methodology. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)