We provide a definitive guide to parameter redundancy in mark-recovery models, indicating, for a wide range of models, in which all the parameters are estimable, and in which models they are not. For these parameter-redundant models, we identify the parameter combinations that can be estimated. Simple, general results are obtained, which hold irrespective of the duration of the studies. We also examine the effect real data have on whether or not models are parameter redundant, and show that results can be robust even with very sparse data. Covariates, as well as time- or age-varying trends, can be added to models to overcome redundancy problems. We show how to determine, without further calculation, whether or not parameter-redundant models are still parameter redundant after the addition of covariates or trends.