The intermediates take it all: Asymptotics of higher criticism statistics and a powerful alternative based on equal local levels

Authors

  • Veronika Gontscharuk,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Statistics in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
    2. German Diabetes Center, Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • Sandra Landwehr,

    1. Department of Statistics in Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
    2. German Diabetes Center, Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • Helmut Finner

    1. German Diabetes Center, Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
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Abstract

The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models.

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