Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

Authors

  • Andrea Escudero,

    1. Vascular Physiology Laboratory and Group of Investigation in Tumor Angiogenesis (GIANT), Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán, Chile
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  • Guillermo Petzold,

    1. Departament of Food Engineering, Universidad del Bío Bío, Chillán, Chile
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  • Jorge Moreno,

    1. Departament of Food Engineering, Universidad del Bío Bío, Chillán, Chile
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  • Marcelo Gonzalez,

    1. Vascular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepción, Concepcion, Chile
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  • Julio Junod,

    1. Departament of Food Engineering, Universidad del Bío Bío, Chillán, Chile
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  • Claudio Aguayo,

    1. Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepción, Concepcion, Chile
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  • Jesenia Acurio,

    1. Vascular Physiology Laboratory and Group of Investigation in Tumor Angiogenesis (GIANT), Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán, Chile
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  • Carlos Escudero

    Corresponding author
    1. Vascular Physiology Laboratory and Group of Investigation in Tumor Angiogenesis (GIANT), Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chillán, Chile
    • Address for correspondence to: Dr. Carlos Escudero, MD, PhD. Vascular Physiology Laboratory, Group of Investigation in Tumor Angiogenesis (GIANT), Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bóo-Bóo. Phone: +56-42-463256; E-mail: cescudero@ubiobio.cl.

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Abstract

Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (∼50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. © 2013 BioFactors 39(5):564–574, 2013

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