Declaration: GM has filed a patent entitled “A treatment for inflammatory diseases” (patent Nr. 08154101.3), while the remaining authors have no conflict of interests to disclose.
Interleukin-21 in chronic inflammatory diseases
Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013
Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Volume 39, Issue 4, pages 368–373, July/August 2013
How to Cite
Sarra, M., Pallone, F. and Monteleone, G. (2013), Interleukin-21 in chronic inflammatory diseases. BioFactors, 39: 368–373. doi: 10.1002/biof.1105
- Issue published online: 13 AUG 2013
- Article first published online: 29 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 4 JAN 2013
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a cytokine produced by various subsets of activated CD4+ T cells, regulates multiple innate and adaptive immune responses. Indeed, IL-21 controls the proliferation and function of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, drives the differentiation of B cells into memory cells and Ig-secreting plasma cells, enhances the activity of natural killer cells and negatively regulates the differentiation and activity of regulatory T cells. Moroever, IL-21 can stimulate nonimmune cells to synthesize various inflammatory molecules. Excessive production of IL-21 has been described in many human chronic inflammatory disorders and there is evidence that blockade of IL-21 helps attenuate detrimental responses in mouse models of immune-mediated diseases. In this article we briefly review data supporting the pathogenic role of IL-21 in immune-inflammatory pathologies and discuss the benefits and risks of IL-21 neutralization in patients with such diseases. © 2013 BioFactors, 39(4):368–373, 2013