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Urinary excretion of ginkgolide terpene lactones following acute consumption of Ginkgo biloba extract

Authors

  • Tristan P. Dew,

    1. School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    2. Bradford School of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
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  • Guan Wang,

    1. School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
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  • Gary Williamson

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    • Address for correspondence: Gary Williamson, B.Sc., Ph.D., School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. Tel.: +441133438380; Fax: +441133432982; E-mail: g.williamson@leeds.ac.uk

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Abstract

Urinary biomarkers of plant food supplement (PFS) exposure/intake represent an accurate, objective tool for determining PFS consumption in humans with applications ranging from epidemiology to subject compliance in clinical trials. Ginkgo biloba remains one of the worlds most popular PFS, yet few studies have investigated the uptake and metabolism of its primary unique bioactives: the terpene lactones. To this end, we conducted a dual-dose, acute crossover intervention using G. biloba supplements in healthy participants (n = 12). Pooled 24-H urine samples were analyzed by triple quadrupole LC-MS-MS. We observed that bilobalide and ginkgolides A and B were passed into urine intact and in a dose-dependent manner. Low levels of intact ginkgolides C and J were also excreted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report intact ginkgolide J in urine following oral consumption of ginkgo supplements and is also the first to account for excreted terpene lactones as a proportion of dose. © 2013 BioFactors, 40(2):268–274, 2014

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