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Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of fermented orange juice (poly)phenols in rats

Authors

  • Blanca Escudero-López,

    1. Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering, Area of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
    2. Department of Food Science, The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Human Nutrition Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • Luca Calani,

    1. Department of Food Science, The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Human Nutrition Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
    2. Department of Food Sciences, LS9 Bioactives and Health, Interlaboratory Group, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • María-Soledad Fernández-Pachón,

    1. Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering, Area of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
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  • Ángeles Ortega,

    1. Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Engineering, Area of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
    2. Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Spain
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  • Furio Brighenti,

    1. Department of Food Science, The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Human Nutrition Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • Alan Crozier,

    1. Plant Products and Human Nutrition Group, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
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  • Daniele Del Rio

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Food Science, The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Human Nutrition Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
    2. Department of Food Sciences, LS9 Bioactives and Health, Interlaboratory Group, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
    • Adress for correspondence: Daniele Del Rio, PhD, The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Department of Food Science, c/o University of Parma Medical School, Building C, Via Volturno 39, 43125 Parma, Italy. Tel.: +39 0521 903830; Fax: +39 0521 903832. E-mail: daniele.delrio@unipr.it

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  • Blanca Escudero-López and Luca Calani contributed equally to the work.

Abstract

Two milliliters of a fermented, pasteurized orange juice containing ∼1% alcohol and 2.3 μmol of (poly)phenolic compounds was fed to rats by gavage after which plasma and urine collected over a 36 h period were analyzed by UHPLC-mass spectrometry. The main constituents in the juice were hesperetin and naringenin-O-glycosides, apigenin-6,8-C-diglucoside, and ferulic acid-4′-O-glucoside. Plasma contained seven flavanone glucuronides, with the principal metabolites, naringenin-7-O-glucuronide, naringenin-4′-O-glucuronide, and an isosakuranetin-O-glucuronide, peaking 6 h after intake at concentrations of ∼10 nmol/L. Urinary excretion of four hesperetin glucuronides was equivalent to 0.28% of intake while that of the two naringenin glucuronides was 2.8% of intake. The plasma and urine data suggest that while some absorption occurred in the small intestine, the main site of uptake was the colon. Urine also contained dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide and dihydroferulic acid-4′-O-sulfate which were excreted in quantities corresponding to 48.2% of the ingested ferulic acid-4′-glucoside. This indicates that the hydroxycinnamate is much more bioavailable than the flavanones in the rat model. Conversion of the ferulic acid glucoside to the dihydroferulic acid metabolites involves the action of colonic microbial glycosidases and reductases/hydrogenases followed by postabsorption phase II metabolism before renal excretion. © 2013 BioFactors, 40(3):327–335, 2014

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