Rho GTPases and cancer



Rho GTPases are a family of small GTPases, which play an important role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Not surprisingly, Rho GTPases are crucial for cell migration and therefore highly important for cancer cell invasion and the formation of metastases. In addition, Rho GTPases are involved in growth and survival of tumor cells, in the interaction of tumor cells with their environment, and they are vital for the cancer supporting functions of the tumor stroma. Recent research has significantly improved our understanding of the regulation of Rho GTPase activity, the specificity of Rho GTPases, and their function in tumor stem cells and tumor stroma. This review summarizes these novel findings and tries to define challenging questions for future research. © 2013 BioFactors, 40(2):226–235, 2014