The natural phytocompound resveratrol has been considered for many years a potential anticancer drug, but recently it has come to the attention of neuroscientist too, as it displays neuroprotective actions and activates the sirtuins' family member SIRT1. Sirtuins are enzymes with preferential deacetylase activity. Human sirtuins are coded by seven genes (SIRT1-7). The most investigated sirtuin is SIRT1, which is involved in several physiologic and pathologic processes including apoptosis, autophagy, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegeneration. Resveratrol has neuroprotective features both in vitro and in vivo in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it has proved to be beneficial also in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and epilepsy. Here, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo experimental results highlighting the possible role of resveratrol as neuroprotective biofactor with a particular focus on AD.