Two experiments were performed to examine the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the development of obesity. In the first experiment, Wistar rats were orally administered a 2.5 g/kg body weight lipid emulsion containing FOS, and the subsequent elevation of plasma triglycerides was significantly suppressed compared with that in rats receiving lipid emulsion alone. In the second experiment, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat “western” diet with or without 2.5% FOS supplementation (n = 10/group) ad libitum for 12 weeks. Body weight and percent body fat were lower in mice fed FOS than in controls. Furthermore, the weight of the visceral adipose tissue, and the weight and triglyceride content of the liver were significantly lower in the high-fat + FOS group. Fecal excretion of lipids was markedly enhanced by FOS consumption. These results indicate that dietary FOS suppress high-fat diet-induced body fat accumulation, and inhibit intestinal absorption of dietary fat.