Until the identification of leptin, the first adipokine discovered in 1994, adipose tissue was considered only as an energy storage tissue. However, it is now clear that adipose tissue is an endocrine/paracrine/autocrine organ, which plays a relevant role in physiopathology of several inflammatory diseases. Actually, it is mainly involved not only in the low-grade inflammatory status in obesity but also in other relevant inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders. In this review article, we discuss the main biological activities of leptin, adiponectin, lipocalin-2, resistin, and visfatin, as well as their contributions to certain inflammatory conditions.
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