Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and control of carbohydrate metabolism in eukaryotes
Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008
Copyright © 1999 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Volume 10, Issue 1, pages 1–14, 1999
How to Cite
Okar, D. A. and Lange, A. J. (1999), Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and control of carbohydrate metabolism in eukaryotes. BioFactors, 10: 1–14. doi: 10.1002/biof.5520100101
- Issue published online: 16 DEC 2008
- Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008
Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is an important intracellular biofactor in the control of carbohydrate metabolic fluxes in eukaryotes. It is generated from ATP and fructose-6-phosphate by 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and degraded to fructose-6-phosphate and phosphate ion by fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. In most organisms these enzymatic activities are contained in a single polypeptide. The reciprocal modulation of the kinase and bisphosphatase activities by post-translational modifications places the level of the biofactor under the control of extra-cellular signals. In general, these signals are generated in response to changing nutritional states, therefore, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate plays a role in the adaptation of organisms, and the tissues within them, to changes in environmental and metabolic states. Although the specific mechanism of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate action varies between species and between tissues, most involve the allosteric activation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. These highly conserved enzymes regulate the fructose-6-phosphate/fructose-1,6-bisphosphate cycle, and thereby, determine the carbon flux. It is by reciprocal modulation of these activities that fructose-2,6-bisphosphate plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic carbohydrate metabolism.