Evolution of selenocysteine-containing proteins: Significance of identification and functional characterization of selenoproteins



In the genetic code, UGA serves as either a signal for termination or a codon for selenocysteine (Sec). Sec rarely occurs in protein and is different from other amino acids in that much of the biosynthetic machinery governing its incorporation into protein is unique to this amino acid. Sec-containing proteins have diverse functions and lack a common amino acid motif or consensus sequence. Sec has previously been considered to be a relic of the primordial genetic code that was counter-selected by the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere. In the present report, it is proposed that Sec was added to the already existing genetic code and its use has accumulated during evolution of eukaryotes culminating in vertebrates. The more recently evolved selenoproteins appear to take advantage of unique redox properties of Sec that are superior to those of Cys for specific biological functions. Further understanding of the evolution of selenoproteins as well as biological properties and biomedical applications of the trace element selenium requires identification and functional characterization of all mammalian selenoproteins.