Get access

Molecular targets of [6]-gingerol: Its potential roles in cancer chemoprevention

Authors


Abstract

A wide variety of phenolic compounds derived from spices possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic activities. [6]-gingerol (1-[4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungent principle of ginger, with numerous pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antitumor promoting properties. It could decrease inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression through suppression of I-kappaB alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation. Other antiproliferative mechanisms of [6]-gingerol include the release of Cytochrome c, Caspases activation, and increase in apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) as mechanism of apoptosis induction. Taken together, the chemopreventive potentials of [6]-gingerol present a promising future alternative to therapeutic agents that are expensive, toxic, and might even be carcinogenic.

Ancillary