• Advanced electrified bio-jets;
  • Bioengineering;
  • Bioprocessing;
  • Living human jurkat cells;
  • Biofabrication


This paper reports for the first time the ability to process living cellular materials by means of electrified jets at electric field strengths of up to 2 kV/mm. Bio-suspensions containing living human Jurkat cells at different concentrations were processed via this jetting approach. The jetting process was carried out at an electric field strength between 0.67 kV/mm and 2 kV/mm, corresponding to an applied voltage of 10–30 kV between two electrodes ∼15 mm apart. The Jurkat cells were jetted under sterile conditions, collected in petri dishes and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. During and after incubation, cells were assessed for survival and structural damage; cells were found to be unharmed and to retain their integrity under all electric field strengths examined. At all field strengths jetting took place in the unstable mode. Good correlation was observed between droplet distribution plots generated by way of laser spectroscopy and estimated values from measurements of droplet relics.