The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) method is based on resonance energy transfer between a light-emitting enzyme and a fluorescent acceptor. Since its first description in 1999, several versions of BRET have been described using different substrates and energy donor/acceptor couples. Today, BRET is considered as one of the most versatile techniques for studying the dynamics of protein-protein interactions in living cells. Various studies have applied BRET-based assays to screen new receptor ligands and inhibitors of disease-related-proteases. Inhibitors of protein-protein interactions are likely to become a new major class of therapeutic drugs, and BRET technology is expected to play an important role in the identification of such compounds. This review describes the original BRET-based methodology, more recent variants, and potential applications to drug screening.