Advanced cell therapies with and without scaffolds

Authors

  • Birsen Demirbag,

    1. METU, Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research Unit, Ankara, Turkey
    2. BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Pinar Y. Huri,

    1. BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
    2. Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Adana, Turkey
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Gamze T. Kose,

    1. BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
    2. Yeditepe University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Istanbul, Turkey
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  • Arda Buyuksungur,

    1. METU, Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research Unit, Ankara, Turkey
    2. BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
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  • Prof. Vasif Hasirci

    Corresponding author
    1. METU, Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Research Unit, Ankara, Turkey
    2. BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, METU, Ankara, Turkey
    3. METU, Department of Biological Sciences, Biotechnology Research Unit, Ankara, Turkey
    • BIOMATEN, Middle East Technical University, Department of Biological Sciences, Biotechnology Research Unit, 06531 Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim to produce tissue substitutes to restore lost functions of tissues and organs. This includes cell therapies, induction of tissue/organ regeneration by biologically active molecules, or transplantation of in vitro grown tissues. This review article discusses advanced cell therapies that make use of scaffolds and scaffold-free approaches. The first part of this article covers the basic characteristics of scaffolds, including characteristics of scaffold material, fabrication and surface functionalization, and their applications in the construction of hard (bone and cartilage) and soft (nerve, skin, blood vessel, heart muscle) tissue substitutes. In addition, cell sources as well as bioreactive agents, such as growth factors, that guide cell functions are presented. The second part in turn, examines scaffold-free applications, with a focus on the recently discovered cell sheet engineering. This article serves as a good reference for all applications of advanced cell therapies and as well as advantages and limitations of scaffold-based and scaffold-free strategies.

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