• 1
    Votteler, M., Carvajal Berrio, D. A., Pudlas, M., Walles, H. et al., Non-contact, label-free monitoring of cells and extracellular matrix using raman spectroscopy. J. Vis. Exp. 2012, 63, e3977. doi: 10.3791/3977.
  • 2
    Raman, C. V., Krishnan, K. S., A new type of secondary radiation. Nature 1928, 501–505, 121.
  • 3
    Georgakoudi, I., Rice, W. L., Hronik-Tupaj, M., Kaplan, D. L., Optical spectroscopy and imaging for the noninvasive evaluation of engineered tissues. Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 2008, 14, 321340.
  • 4
    LaPlant, F., Lasers, spectrographs, and detectors in: Matousek, P., Morris, M. D. (Eds.), Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg 2010, pp. 1–24.
  • 5
    Mariani, M. M., Deckert, V., Raman spectroscopy: Principles, benefits & applications. Bunsen-Magazin 2012, 14, 136147.
  • 6
    De Beer, T., Burggraeve, A., Fonteyne, M., Saerens, L. et al., Near infrared and Raman spectroscopy for the in-process monitoring of pharmaceutical production processes. Int. J. Pharm. 2011, 417, 3247.
  • 7
    Strachan, C. J., Rades, T., Gordon, K. C., Rantanen, J., Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2007, 59, 179192.
  • 8
    Puppels, G. J., de Mul, F. F., Otto, C., Greve, J. et al., Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Nature 1990, 347, 301303.
  • 9
    Puppels, G. J., Olminkhof, J. H. F., Segers-Nolten, G. M. J., Otto, C. et al., Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light. Exp. Cell Res. 1991, 195, 361367.
  • 10
    Kujawa, J., Zavodnik, I. B., Lapshina, A., Labieniec, M. et al., Cell survival, DNA, and protein damage in B14 cells under low-intensity near-infrared (810 nm) laser irradiation. Photomed. Laser Surg. 2004, 22, 504508.
  • 11
    Downes, A., Mouras, R., Elfick, A., Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864, 16.
  • 12
    Notingher, I., Jell, G., Notingher, P. L., Bisson, I. et al., Multivariate analysis of Raman spectra for in vitro non-invasive studies of living cells. J. Mol. Struct. 2005, 744–747, 179185.
  • 13
    Bonnier, F., Byrne, H. J., Understanding the molecular information contained in principal component analysis of vibrational spectra of biological systems. Analyst 2012, 137, 322332.
  • 14
    Naumann, D., FT-Infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research. Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 2001, 36, 239298.
  • 15
    Maquelin, K., Kirschner, C., Choo-Smith, L. P., van den Braak, N. et al., Identification of medically relevant microorganisms by vibrational spectroscopy. J. Microbiol. Methods 2002, 51, 255271.
  • 16
    Maquelin, K., Kirschner, C., Choo-Smith, L.-P., Ngo-Thi, N. A. et al., Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003, 41, 324329.
  • 17
    Harz, M., Kiehntopf, M., Stockel, S., Rosch, P. et al., Direct analysis of clinical relevant single bacterial cells from cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. J. Biophotonics 2009, 2, 7080.
  • 18
    Kirschner, C., Maquelin, K., Pina, P., Ngo Thi, N. A. et al., Classification and identification of Enterococci: A comparative phenotypic, genotypic, and vibrational spectroscopic study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001, 39, 17631770.
  • 19
    Oust, A., Moretro, T., Naterstad, K., Sockalingum, G. D. et al., Fourier transform infrared and raman spectroscopy for characterization of Listeria monocytogenes strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2006, 72, 228232.
  • 20
    Schuster, K. C., Reese, I., Urlaub, E., Gapes, J. R. et al., Multidimensional information on the chemical composition of single bacterial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 55295534.
  • 21
    Pudlas, M., Koch, S., Bolwien, C., Walles, H., Raman spectroscopy as a tool for quality and sterility analysis for tissue engineering applications like cartilage transplants. Int. J. Artif. Organs 2010, 33, 228237.
  • 22
    Chan, J. W., Esposito, A. P., Talley, C. E., Hollars, C. W. et al., Reagentless identification of single bacterial spores in aqueous solution by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 599603.
  • 23
    Esposito, A. P., Talley, C. E., Huser, T., Hollars, C. W. et al., Analysis of single bacterial spores by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 2003, 57, 868871.
  • 24
    De Gelder, J., Scheldeman, P., Leus, K., Heyndrickx, M. et al., Raman spectroscopic study of bacterial endospores. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2007, 389, 21432151.
  • 25
    Hutsebaut, D., Maquelin, K., De Vos, P., Vandenabeele, P. et al., Effect of culture conditions on the achievable taxonomic resolution of Raman spectroscopy disclosed by three Bacillus species. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 62746281.
  • 26
    Choo-Smith, L.-P., Maquelin, K., van Vreeswijk, T., Bruining, H. A. et al., Investigating microbial (micro)colony heterogeneity by vibrational spectroscopy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2001, 67, 14611469.
  • 27
    Oliveira, D. C., Tomasz, A., de Lencastre, H., Secrets of success of a human pathogen: Molecular evolution of pandemic clones of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2002, 2, 180189.
  • 28
    Walter, A., Reinicke, M., Bocklitz, T., Schumacher, W. et al., Raman spectroscopic detection of physiology changes in plasmid-bearing Escherichia coli with and without antibiotic treatment. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2011, 400, 27632773.
  • 29
    Willemse-Erix, D. F., Scholtes-Timmerman, M. J., Jachtenberg, J. W., van Leeuwen, W. B. et al., Optical fingerprinting in bacterial epidemiology: Raman spectroscopy as a real-time typing method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2009, 47, 652659.
  • 30
    Guyot, K., Biran, V., Doit, C., Moissenet, D. et al., Raman spectroscopic analysis of the clonal and horizontal spread of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2012, 31, 28272834.
  • 31
    Wulf, M. W., Willemse-Erix, D., Verduin, C. M., Puppels, G. et al., The use of Raman spectroscopy in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of human- and animal-related clonal lineages. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2012, 18, 147152.
  • 32
    Willemse-Erix, H. F. M., Jachtenberg, J., Barutci, H., Puppels, G. J. et al., Proof of principle for successful characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from skin by use of Raman spectroscopy and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2010, 48, 736740.
  • 33
    Willemse-Erix, D., Bakker-Schut, T., Slagboom-Bax, F., Jachtenberg, J. W. et al., Rapid typing of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by use of SpectraCell RA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2012, 50, 13701375.
  • 34
    Singh, V. B., Singh, A. K., Rai, A. K., Singh, A. N. et al., Vibrational assignment of the normal modes of 2-phenyl-4-(4-methoxy benzylidene)-2-oxazolin-5-one via FTIR and Raman spectra, and ab inito calculations. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 2007, 67, 687693.
  • 35
    Gelder, J. D., Willemse-Erix, D., Scholtes, M. J., Sanchez, J. I. et al., Monitoring poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in cupriavidus necator DSM 428 (H16) with raman spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 21552160.
  • 36
    Peng, L., Wang, G., Liao, W., Yao, H. et al., Intracellular ethanol accumulation in yeast cells during aerobic fermentation: A Raman spectroscopic exploration. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2010, 51, 632638.
  • 37
    Picard, A., Daniel, I., Montagnac, G., Oger, P., In situ monitoring by quantitative Raman spectroscopy of alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under high pressure. Extremophiles 2007, 11, 445452.
  • 38
    De Gelder, J., De Gussem, K., Vandenabeele, P., Vancanneyt, M. et al., Methods for extracting biochemical information from bacterial Raman spectra: Focus on a group of structurally similar biomolecules – Fatty acids. Anal. Chim. Acta 2007, 603, 167175.
  • 39
    Samek, O., Jonas, A., Pilat, Z., Zemanek, P. et al., Raman microspectroscopy of individual algal cells: Sensing unsaturation of storage lipids in vivo. Sensors 2010, 10, 86358651.
  • 40
    Xie, C., Nguyen, N., Zhu, Y., Li, Y. Q., Detection of the recombinant proteins in single transgenic microbial cell using laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2007, 79, 92699275.
  • 41
    Chan, J. W., Winhold, H., Corzett, M. H., Ulloa, J. M. et al., Monitoring dynamic protein expression in living E. coli. Bacterial cells by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy. Cytometry A 2007, 71, 468474.
  • 42
    Tang, W., Newton, R. J., Xie, C. A., Li, Y. Q. et al., Non-destructive analysis of the nuclei of transgenic living cells using laser tweezers and near-infrared raman spectroscopic technique. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2005, 3, 169178.
  • 43
    Pudlas, M., Koch, S., Bolwien, C., Thude, S. et al., Raman spectroscopy: A noninvasive analysis tool for the discrimination of human skin cells. Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 2011, 17, 10271040.
  • 44
    Pudlas, M., Berrio, D. A. C., Votteler, M., Koch, S. et al., Non-contact discrimination of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts using Raman spectroscopy. Med. Laser Appl. 2011, 26, 119125.
  • 45
    Uzunbajakava, N., Lenferink, A., Kraan, Y., Willekens, B. et al., Nonresonant Raman imaging of protein distribution in single human cells. Biopolymers 2003, 72, 19.
  • 46
    Short, K. W., Carpenter, S., Freyer, J. P., Mourant, J. R., Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures. Biophys. J. 2005, 88, 42744288.
  • 47
    Swain, R. J., Jell, G., Stevens, M. M., Non-invasive analysis of cell cycle dynamics in single living cells with Raman micro-spectroscopy. J. Cell. Biochem. 2008, 104, 14271438.
  • 48
    Meade, A. D., Lyng, F. M., Knief, P., Byrne, H. J., Growth substrate induced functional changes elucidated by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in in vitro cultured human keratinocytes. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2007, 387, 17171728.
  • 49
    Swain, R. J., Kemp, S. J., Goldstraw, P., Tetley, T. D. et al., Assessment of cell line models of primary human cells by Raman spectral phenotyping. Biophys. J. 2010, 98, 17031711.
  • 50
    Notingher, I., Jell, G., Lohbauer, U., Salih, V. et al., In situ non-invasive spectral discrimination between bone cell phenotypes used in tissue engineering. J. Cell. Biochem. 2004, 92, 11801192.
  • 51
    McManus, L. L., Bonnier, F., Burke, G. A., Meenan, B. J. et al., Assessment of an osteoblast-like cell line as a model for human primary osteoblasts using Raman spectroscopy. Analyst 2012, 137, 15591569.
  • 52
    Pudlas, M., Brauchle, E., Klein, T. J., Hutmacher, D. W. et al., Non-invasive identification of proteoglycans and chondrocyte differentiation state by Raman microspectroscopy. J. Biophotonics 2012, in press. 10.1002/jbio.201200064
  • 53
    Klenke, F. M., Abdollahi, A., Bertl, E., Gebhard, M. M. et al., Tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU6668 represses chondrosarcoma growth via antiangiogenesis in vivo. BMC Cancer 2007, 7, 49.
  • 54
    Omberg, K. M., Osborn, J. C., Zhang, S. L., Freyer, J. P. et al., Raman spectroscopy and factor analysis of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. Appl. Spectrosc. 2002, 56, 813819.
  • 55
    Banerjee, H. N., Zhang, L., Deciphering the finger prints of brain cancer astrocytoma in comparison to astrocytes by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2007, 295, 237240.
  • 56
    Taleb, A., Diamond, J., McGarvey, J. J., Beattie, J. R. et al., Raman microscopy for the chemometric analysis of tumor cells. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 1962519631.
  • 57
    Oshima, Y., Shinzawa, H., Takenaka, T., Furihata, C. et al., Discrimination analysis of human lung cancer cells associated with histological type and malignancy using Raman spectroscopy. J. Biomed. Opt. 2010, 15, 017009.
  • 58
    Yu, C., Gestl, E., Eckert, K., Allara, D. et al., Characterization of human breast epithelial cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Cancer Detect. Prev. 2006, 30, 515522.
  • 59
    Hedegaard, M., Krafft, C., Ditzel, H. J., Johansen, L. E. et al., Discriminating isogenic cancer cells and identifying altered unsaturated fatty acid content as associated with metastasis status, using k-means clustering and partial least squares-discriminant analysis of Raman maps. Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 27972802.
  • 60
    Hartsuiker, L., Zeijen, N. J., Terstappen, L. W., Otto, C., A comparison of breast cancer tumor cells with varying expression of the Her2/neu receptor by Raman microspectroscopic imaging. Analyst 2010, 135, 32203226.
  • 61
    Jess, P. R., Smith, D. D., Mazilu, M., Dholakia, K. et al., Early detection of cervical neoplasia by Raman spectroscopy. Int. J. Cancer 2007, 121, 27232728.
  • 62
    Ostrowska, K. M., Malkin, A., Meade, A., O'Leary, J. et al., Investigation of the influence of high-risk human papillomavirus on the biochemical composition of cervical cancer cells using vibrational spectroscopy. Analyst 2010, 135, 30873093.
  • 63
    Hamden, K. E., Bryan, B. A., Ford, P. W., Xie, C. et al., Spectroscopic analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells by Raman tweezers. J. Virol. Methods 2005, 129, 145151.
  • 64
    Chan, J. W., Taylor, D. S., Zwerdling, T., Lane, S. M. et al., Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells. Biophys. J. 2006, 90, 648656.
  • 65
    Fore, S., Chan, J., Taylor, D., Huser, T., Raman spectroscopy of individual monocytes reveals that single-beam optical trapping of mononuclear cells occurs by their nucleus. J. Opt. 2011, 13, 44021.
  • 66
    Harvey, T. J., Faria, E. C., Henderson, A., Gazi, E. et al., Spectral discrimination of live prostate and bladder cancer cell lines using Raman optical tweezers. J. Biomed. Opt. 2008, 13, 064004.
  • 67
    Harvey, T. J., Hughes, C., Ward, A. D., Faria, E. C. et al., Classification of fixed urological cells using Raman tweezers. J. Biophotonics 2009, 2, 4769.
  • 68
    Krishna, C. M., Kegelaer, G., Adt, I., Rubin, S. et al., Combined Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic approach for identification of multidrug resistance phenotype in cancer cell lines. Biopolymers 2006, 82, 462470.
  • 69
    Notingher, I., Bisson, I., Polak, J. M., Hench, L. L., In situ spectroscopic study of nucleic acids in differentiating embryonic stem cells. Vib. Spectrosc. 2004, 35, 199203.
  • 70
    Schulze, H. G., Konorov, S. O., Caron, N. J., Piret, J. M. et al., Assessing differentiation status of human embryonic stem cells noninvasively using Raman microspectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 50205027.
  • 71
    Notingher, I., Bisson, I., Bishop, A. E., Randle, W. L. et al., In situ spectral monitoring of mRNA translation in embryonic stem cells during differentiation in vitro. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 31853193.
  • 72
    Ghita, A., Pascut, F. C., Mather, M., Sottile, V. et al., Cytoplasmic RNA in undifferentiated neural stem cells: A potential label-free Raman spectral marker for assessing the undifferentiated status. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 31553162.
  • 73
    El-Hagrasy, M. A., Shimizu, E., Saito, M., Yamaguchi, Y. et al., Discrimination of primitive endoderm in embryoid bodies by Raman microspectroscopy. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2012, 402, 10731081.
  • 74
    Konorov, S. O., Schulze, H. G., Piret, J. M., Turner, R. F. B. et al., Evidence of marked glycogen variations in the characteristic Raman signatures of human embryonic stem cells. J. Raman Spectrosc. 2011, 42, 11351141.
  • 75
    Konorov, S. O., Schulze, H. G., Atkins, C. G., Piret, J. M. et al., Absolute quantification of intracellular glycogen content in human embryonic stem cells with Raman microspectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 62546258.
  • 76
    Chan, J. W., Lieu, D. K., Huser, T., Li, R. A., Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their cardiac derivatives using Raman spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 13241331.
  • 77
    Pascut, F. C., Goh, H. T., George, V., Denning, C. et al., Toward label-free Raman-activated cell sorting of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. J. Biomed. Opt. 2011, 16, 045002.
  • 78
    Pascut, F. C., Goh, H. T., Welch, N., Buttery, L. D. et al., Noninvasive detection and imaging of molecular markers in live cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Biophys. J. 2011, 100, 251259.
  • 79
    Pijanka, J. K., Kumar, D., Dale, T., Yousef, I. et al., Vibrational spectroscopy differentiates between multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. Analyst 2010, 135, 31263132.
  • 80
    McManus, L. L., Burke, G. A., McCafferty, M. M., O'Hare, P. et al., Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Analyst 2011, 136, 24712481.
  • 81
    Chiang, H. K., Peng, F.-Y., Hung, S.-C., Feng, Y.-C., In situ Raman spectroscopic monitoring of hydroxyapatite as human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts. J. Raman Spectrosc. 2009, 40, 546549.
  • 82
    Azrad, E., Zahor, D., Vago, R., Nevo, Z. et al., Probing the effect of an extract of elk velvet antler powder on mesenchymal stem cells using Raman microspectroscopy: Enhanced differentiation toward osteogenic fate. J. Raman Spectrosc. 2006, 37, 480486.
  • 83
    Pully, V. V., Lenferink, A., van Manen, H. J., Subramaniam, V. et al., Microbioreactors for Raman microscopy of stromal cell differentiation. Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 18441850.
  • 84
    Notingher, I., Verrier, S., Haque, S., Polak, J. M. et al., Spectroscopic study of human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture: Living cells versus dead cells. Biopolymers 2003, 72, 230240.
  • 85
    Verrier, S., Notingher, I., Polak, J. M., Hench, L. L., In situ monitoring of cell death using Raman microspectroscopy. Biopolymers 2004, 74, 157162.
  • 86
    Notingher, I., Selvakumaran, J., Hench, L. L., New detection system for toxic agents based on continuous spectroscopic monitoring of living cells. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2004, 20, 780789.
  • 87
    Kunapareddy, N., Freyer, J. P., Mourant, J. R., Raman spectroscopic characterization of necrotic cell death. J. Biomed. Opt. 2008, 13, 054002.
  • 88
    Bai, H., Chen, P., Fang, H., Lin, L. et al., Detecting viability transitions of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by Raman micro-spectroscopy. Laser Phys. Lett. 2011, 8, 7884.
  • 89
    Boyd, A. R., Burke, G. A., Meenan, B. J., Monitoring cellular behaviour using Raman spectroscopy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 2010, 21, 23172324.
  • 90
    Owen, C. A., Selvakumaran, J., Notingher, I., Jell, G. et al., In vitro toxicology evaluation of pharmaceuticals using Raman micro-spectroscopy. J. Cell. Biochem. 2006, 99, 178186.
  • 91
    Zoladek, A., Pascut, F. C., Patel, P., Notingher, I., Non-invasive time-course imaging of apoptotic cells by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy. J. Raman Spectrosc. 2011, 42, 251258.
  • 92
    Pyrgiotakis, G., Kundakcioglu, O. E., Finton, K., Pardalos, P. M. et al., Cell death discrimination with Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2009, 37, 14641473.
  • 93
    Moritz, T. J., Taylor, D. S., Krol, D. M., Fritch, J. et al., Detection of doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of leukemic T-lymphocytes by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy. Biomed. Opt. Expr. 2010, 1, 11381147.
  • 94
    Uzunbajakava, N., Lenferink, A., Kraan, Y., Volokhina, E. et al., Nonresonant confocal Raman imaging of DNA and protein distribution in apoptotic cells. Biophys. J. 2003, 84, 39683981.
  • 95
    Notingher, I., Green, C., Dyer, C., Perkins, E. et al., Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. J. R. Soc. Interface 2004, 1, 7990.
  • 96
    le Roux, K., Prinsloo, L. C., Hussein, A. A., Lall, N., A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells treated with Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf and the isolated compound madurensine. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 2012, 95, 547554.
  • 97
    Manoharan, R., Baraga, J. J., Feld, M. S., Rava, R. P., Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 1992, 16, 211233.
  • 98
    Mizuno, A., Tsuji, M., Fujii, K., Kawauchi, K. et al., Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic study of cornea and sclera. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 1994, 38, 4448.
  • 99
    Caspers, P. J., Lucassen, G. W., Wolthuis, R., Bruining, H. A. et al., In vitro and in vivo Raman spectroscopy of human skin. Biospectroscopy 1998, 4, S31S39.
  • 100
    Zhang, G., Moore, D. J., Flach, C. R., Mendelsohn, R., Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: From single cells to intact tissue. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2007, 387, 15911599.
  • 101
    de Veld, D. C., Bakker Schut, T. C., Skurichina, M., Witjes, M. J. et al., Autofluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy of tissue sections of oral lesions. Lasers Med. Sci. 2005, 19, 203209.
  • 102
    Hinton, R. B., Yutzey, K. E., Heart valve structure and function in development and disease. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2011, 73, 2946.
  • 103
    Votteler, M., Carvajal Berrio, D. A., Pudlas, M., Walles, H. et al., Raman spectroscopy for the non-contact and non-destructive monitoring of collagen damage within tissues. J. Biophotonics 2012, 5, 4756.
  • 104
    Dehring, K. A., Smukler, A. R., Roessler, B. J., Morris, M. D., Correlating changes in collagen secondary structure with aging and defective type II collagen by Raman spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 2006, 60, 366372.
  • 105
    Xiao, Y., Guo, M., Zhang, P., Shanmugam, G. et al., Wavelength-dependent conformational changes in collagen after mid-infrared laser ablation of cornea. Biophys. J. 2008, 94, 13591366.
  • 106
    Bonifacio, A., Beleites, C., Vittur, F., Marsich, E. et al., Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis. Analyst 2010, 135, 31933204.
  • 107
    Lim, N. S., Hamed, Z., Yeow, C. H., Chan, C. et al., Early detection of biomolecular changes in disrupted porcine cartilage using polarized Raman spectroscopy. J. Biomed. Opt. 2011, 16, 017003.
  • 108
    Saxena, T., Deng, B., Stelzner, D., Hasenwinkel, J. et al., Raman spectroscopic investigation of spinal cord injury in a rat model. J. Biomed. Opt. 2011, 16, 027003.
  • 109
    Li, M., Xu, J., Romero-Gonzalez, M., Banwart, S. A. et al., Single cell Raman spectroscopy for cell sorting and imaging. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2012, 23, 5663.
  • 110
    Dochow, S., Krafft, C., Neugebauer, U., Bocklitz, T. et al., Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments. Lab Chip 2011, 11, 14841490.
  • 111
    Yan, X. L., Dong, R. X., Zhang, L., Zhang, X. J. et al., Raman spectra of single cell from gastrointestinal cancer patients. World J. Gastroenterol. 2005, 11, 32903292.