Combined Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic approach for identification of multidrug resistance phenotype in cancer cell lines



Cancer cells escape cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs by a process known as multidrug resistance (MDR). Identification of cell status by less time-consuming methods can be extremely useful in patient management and treatment. This study aims at evaluating the potentials of vibrational spectroscopic methods to perform cell typing and to differentiate between sensitive and resistant human cancer cell lines, in particular those that exhibit the MDR phenotype. Micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra have been acquired from the sensitive promyelocytic HL60 leukemia cell line and two of its subclones resistant to doxorubicin (HL60/DOX) and daunorubicin (HL60/DNR), and from the sensitive MCF7 breast cancer cell line and its MDR counterpart resistant to verapamil (MCF7/VP). Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed for spectral comparison and classification. Our data show that cell typing was feasible with both methods, giving two distinct clusters for HL60- and MCF7-sensitive cells. In addition, phenotyping of HL60 cells, i.e., discriminating between the sensitive and MDR phenotypes, was attempted by both methods. FTIR could not only delineate between the sensitive and resistant HL60 cells, but also gave two distinct clusters for the resistant cells, which required a two-step procedure with Raman spectra. In the case of MCF7 cell lines, both the sensitive and resistant phenotypes could be differentiated very efficiently by PCA analysis of their FTIR and Raman point spectra. These results indicate the prospective applicability of FTIR and micro-Raman approaches in the differentiation of cell types as well as characterization of the cell status, such as the MDR phenotype exhibited in resistant leukemia cell lines like HL60 and MCF7. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 82: 462–470, 2006

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