Understanding the mechanism of β-sheet folding from a chemical and biological perspective



Perturbing the structure of the Pin1 WW domain, a 34-residue protein comprised of three β-strands and two intervening loops has provided significant insight into the structural and energetic basis of β-sheet folding. We will review our current perspective on how structure acquisition is influenced by the sequence, which determines local conformational propensities and mediates the hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding, and analogous intramolecular interactions. We have utilized both traditional site-directed mutagenesis and backbone mutagenesis approaches to alter the primary structure of this β-sheet protein. Traditional site-directed mutagenesis experiments are excellent for altering side-chain structure, whereas amide-to-ester backbone mutagenesis experiments modify backbone-backbone hydrogen bonding capacity. The transition state structure associated with the folding of the Pin1 WW domain features a partially H-bonded, near-native reverse turn secondary structure in loop 1 that has little influence on thermodynamic stability. The thermodynamic stability of the Pin1 WW domain is largely determined by the formation of a small hydrophobic core and by the formation of desolvated backbone-backbone H-bonds enveloped by this hydrophobic core. Loop 1 engineering to the consensus five-residue β-bulge-turn found in most WW domains or a four-residue β-turn found in most β-hairpins accelerates folding substantially relative to the six-residue turn found in the wild type Pin1 WW domain. Furthermore, the more efficient five- and four-residue reverse turns now contribute to the stability of the three-stranded β-sheet. These insights have allowed the design of Pin1 WW domains that fold at rates that approach the theoretical speed limit of folding. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 90: 751–758, 2008.

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