A natural rubber was identified and characterized for the first time in the latex of the perennial Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias. Four different methods, i.e., acetone, acetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and Triton® X-100, followed by successive treatments with cyclohexane/ethanol, were employed to extract the natural rubber. The rubber content was shown to be 14% (w/v) of the E. characias latex, a low content compared with that of Hevea brasiliensis (30–35%) but a similar content to other rubber producing plants. E. characias rubber showed a molecular weight of 93,000 with a Mw/Mn of 2.9. 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and FTIR analysis revealed the characteristic of the cis-1,4-polyisoprene typical of natural rubber. These results provided novel insight into latex components and will ultimately benefit the broader understanding of E. characias latex composition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 97: 589–594, 2012.