We examine the effects of concentration (aggregation), buffers, and ligation, under conditions of either constant ligand activity or limited total amount of ligand, upon thermal denaturation of macromolecules as measured by scanning calorimetry. In doing so we utilize and extend an earlier generalized allosteric treatment [S. J. Gill, B. Richey, G. Bishop, and J. Wyman (1985) Biophys. Chem.21, 1–14], applicable to ligand binding, enthalpy changes, and volume changes in a macromolecular system. The approach is contrasted with formulations based on the idea of structural domains. We show how information from the full scanning calorimetric curves can be utilized in arriving at and testing appropriate models for observed behavior in selected examples.