• P450 BM-3;
  • CYP102;
  • Bacillus megaterium;
  • organic solvent resistance;
  • random mutagenesis;
  • directed evolution


Cytochrome P450 BM-3 (EC catalyzes the hydroxylation and/or epoxidation of a broad range of substrates, including alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, fatty acids, amides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocycles. For many of these notoriously water-insoluble compounds, P450 BM-3's Km values are in the millimolar range. Polar organic cosolvents are therefore added to increase substrate solubility and achieve high catalytic efficiency. Using P450 BM-3 as a catalyst for these important transformations requires that we improve its ability to tolerate the cosolvents. By directed evolution, we improved the activity of P450 BM-3 in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), achieving increases in specific activity up to 10-fold in 2% (v/v) THF and 6-fold in 25% (v/v) DMSO. The engineered P450 BM-3's are also significantly more resistant to acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and ethanol as cosolvents in the reaction. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.