The broad applicability of the cross-linking of enzyme aggregates to the effective immobilisation of enzymes is demonstrated and the influence of many parameters on the properties of the resulting CLEAs is determined. The relative simplicity of the operation ideally lends itself to high-throughput methodologies. The aggregation method was improved up to 100% activity yield for any enzyme. For the first time, the physical structures of CLEAs are elucidated. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.