In this article, a kinetic model is developed and presented for biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (BNRAS) systems in general, but for external nitrification (EN) BNRAS (ENBNRAS) systems in particular. The model is based on the UCTPHO model, but includes some significant modifications, such as anoxic P uptake and associated denitrification by phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). Some key features of the model are described and discussed before the model is presented. Model evaluation will be addressed in another article (Hu et al., 2007). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2007;98: 1242–1258. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.