The denitrification process was incorporated into the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) in order to account for the effect of denitrification on the methanogenic fermentation process. The model was calibrated and optimized using previously published experimental data and kinetic parameter values obtained with a mixed, mesophilic (35°C) methanogenic culture. Model simulations were used to predict the effect of nitrate reduction on the methanogenic fermentation process in batch, semi-continuous, and continuous flow reactors experiencing operational changes and/or system disturbances. The extended model clearly revealed the importance of substrate competition between denitrifiers and non-denitrifiers as well as the impact of N-oxide inhibition on process interactions between fermentation, methanogenesis, and denitrification. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;105: 98–108. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.