• phage;
  • bacteria detection;
  • fluorescence;
  • nanocrystal;
  • microscopy;
  • electron-spray differential mobility assay


We characterize CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) binding to genetically modified bacteriophage as a model for bacterial detection. Interactions among QDs, lambda (λ) phage, and Escherichia coli are examined by several cross-validated methods. Flow and image-based cytometry clarify fluorescent labeling of bacteria, with image-based cytometry additionally reporting the number of decorated phage bound to cells. Transmission electron microscopy, image-based cytometry, and electrospray differential mobility analysis allow quantization of QDs attached to each phage (4–17 QDs) and show that λ phage used in this study exhibits enhanced QD binding to the capsid by nearly a factor of four compared to bacteriophage T7. Additionally, the characterization methodology presented can be applied to the quantitative characterization of other fluorescent nanocrystal-biological conjugates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;104: 1059–1067. Published 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.