J.H.P. and B.G.C. designed and performed the experiments, and analyzed the data. W.G.L. fabricated agarose channels and analyzed the data. J.S.K. conceived the methodology for creating micropores and analyzed confocal images. M.B. measured the porosity and characterized mechanical strength. J.S. characterized diffusion coefficient and profiles. S.H.L. synthesized biomaterials, characterized porosity, and analyzed the data. C.H. performed cell experiments and analyzed the data. G.D. created and characterized pores within agarose gels using sucrose mixtures. U.D. helped in analysis of the data. A.K. supervised the work and conceived of the idea. All authors read and wrote the paper.
Article first published online: 20 JAN 2010
Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Volume 106, Issue 1, pages 138–148, 1 May 2010
How to Cite
Park, J. H., Chung, B. G., Lee, W. G., Kim, J., Brigham, M. D., Shim, J., Lee, S., Hwang, C. M., Durmus, N. G., Demirci, U. and Khademhosseini, A. (2010), Microporous cell-laden hydrogels for engineered tissue constructs. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 106: 138–148. doi: 10.1002/bit.22667
Jae Hong Park and Bong Geun Chung equally contributed to this work.
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 20 JAN 2010
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 JAN 2010 12:00AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 DEC 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 17 DEC 2009
- Manuscript Received: 24 AUG 2009
- The National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: DE019024, HL092836, EB007249
- US Army Core of Engineers
- The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
- Korea Research Foundation Grant (MOEHRD). Grant Number: KRF-2007-357-D00101
- cell-laden hydrogel;
- tissue engineering
In this article, we describe an approach to generate microporous cell-laden hydrogels for fabricating biomimetic tissue engineered constructs. Micropores at different length scales were fabricated in cell-laden hydrogels by micromolding fluidic channels and leaching sucrose crystals. Microengineered channels were created within cell-laden hydrogel precursors containing agarose solution mixed with sucrose crystals. The rapid cooling of the agarose solution was used to gel the solution and form micropores in place of the sucrose crystals. The sucrose leaching process generated homogeneously distributed micropores within the gels, while enabling the direct immobilization of cells within the gels. We also characterized the physical, mechanical, and biological properties (i.e., microporosity, diffusivity, and cell viability) of cell-laden agarose gels as a function of engineered porosity. The microporosity was controlled from 0% to 40% and the diffusivity of molecules in the porous agarose gels increased as compared to controls. Furthermore, the viability of human hepatic carcinoma cells that were cultured in microporous agarose gels corresponded to the diffusion profile generated away from the microchannels. Based on their enhanced diffusive properties, microporous cell-laden hydrogels containing a microengineered fluidic channel can be a useful tool for generating tissue structures for regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010; 106: 138–148. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.