A novel thermostable NAD(P)H oxidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkNOX) catalyzes oxidation of NADH and NADPH with oxygen from atmospheric air as an electron acceptor. Although the optimal temperature of TkNOX is >90°C, it also shows activity at 30°C. This enzyme was used for the regeneration of both NADP+ and NAD+ in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of racemic 1-phenylethanol. NADP+ regeneration at 30°C was performed by TkNOX coupled with (R)-specific ADH from Lactobacillus kefir, resulting in successful acquisition of optically pure (S)-1-phenylethanol. The use of TkNOX with moderately thermostable (S)-specific ADH from Rhodococcus erythropolis enabled us to operate the enantioselective bioconversion accompanying NAD+ regeneration at high temperatures. Optically pure (R)-1-phenylethanol was successfully obtained by this system after a shorter reaction time at 45–60°C than that at 30°C, demonstrating an advantage of the combination of thermostable enzymes. The ability of TkNOX to oxidize both NADH and NADPH with remarkable thermostability renders this enzyme a versatile tool for regeneration of the oxidized nicotinamide cofactors without the need for extra substrates other than dissolved oxygen from air. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012;109: 53–62. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.