Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have proven beneficial in the repair and preservation of infarcted myocardium. Unfortunately, MSCs represent a small portion of the bone marrow and require ex vivo expansion. To further advance the clinical usefulness of cellular cardiomyoplasty, derivation of “MSC-like” cells that can be made available “off-the-shelf” are desirable. Recently, human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells (hESC-MC) were described. We investigated the efficacy of hESC-MC for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) compared to hMSC. Because of increased efficacy of cell delivery, cells were embedded into collagen patches and delivered to infarcted myocardium. Culture of hMSC and hESC-MCs in collagen patches did not induce differentiation or significant loss in viability. Transplantation of hMSC and hES-MC patches onto infarcted myocardium of athymic nude rats prevented adverse changes in infarct wall thickness and fractional area change compared to a non-viable patch control. Hemodynamic assessment showed that hMSCs and hES-MC patch application improved end diastolic pressure equivalently. There were no changes in systolic function. hES-MC and hMSC construct application enhanced neovessel formation compared to a non-viable control, and each cell type had similar efficacy in stimulating endothelial cell growth in vitro. In summary, the use of hES-MC provides similar efficacy for cellular cardiomyoplasty as compared to hMSC and may be considered a suitable alternative for cell therapy. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012;109: 274–283. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.