Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFC) have a great potential as a small power source, but their practical applications are being hampered by short lifetime and low power density. This study describes the direct immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the carbon paper in the form of highly stable and active enzyme precipitation coatings (EPCs), which can improve the lifetime and power density of BFCs. EPCs were fabricated directly onto the carbon paper via a three-step process: covalent attachment (CA), enzyme precipitation, and chemical crosslinking. GOx-immobilized carbon papers via the CA and EPC approaches were used as an enzyme anode and their electrochemical activities were tested under the BFC-operating mode. The BFCs with CA and EPC enzyme anodes produced the maximum power densities of 50 and 250 µW/cm2, respectively. The BFC with the EPC enzyme anode showed a stable current density output of >700 µA/cm2 at 0.18 V under continuous operation for over 45 h. When a maple syrup was used as a fuel under ambient conditions, it also produced a stable current density of >10 µA/cm2 at 0.18 V for over 25 h. It is anticipated that the direct immobilization of EPC on hierarchical-structured electrodes with a large surface area would further improve the power density of BFCs that can make their applications more feasible. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012; 109:318–324. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.