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Covalently grafted BMP-7 peptide to reduce macrophage/monocyte activity: An in vitro study on cobalt chromium alloy

Authors

  • Hark Chuan Tan,

    1. Orthopaedic Diagnostic Centre, Level 3, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore; telephone: 65166521; fax: 67744082
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  • Chye Khoon Poh,

    1. Orthopaedic Diagnostic Centre, Level 3, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore; telephone: 65166521; fax: 67744082
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  • Yanli Cai,

    1. Orthopaedic Diagnostic Centre, Level 3, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore; telephone: 65166521; fax: 67744082
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  • Min Thun Soe,

    1. Orthopaedic Diagnostic Centre, Level 3, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore; telephone: 65166521; fax: 67744082
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  • Wilson Wang

    Corresponding author
    1. Orthopaedic Diagnostic Centre, Level 3, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore; telephone: 65166521; fax: 67744082
    • Orthopaedic Diagnostic Centre, Level 3, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore; telephone: 65166521; fax: 67744082
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  • Conflict of interest: no competing financial interests exist.

Abstract

Cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy is widely used in orthopedic implants but its functional longevity is susceptible to inflammation related complications. Reduction of the development of chronic inflammation on the biomaterial surface would enhance direct bone-implant bonding and improve implant survival and long-term results. The BMP-7 peptide was derived from the knuckle epitope of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) and was conjugated via a cysteine amino acid at the N-terminus. Mouse RAW 264.7 monocytes/macrophages were seeded on the CoCr substrates and inflammation was induced via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The effects of BMP-7 peptide on inflammation were evaluated by measuring the expression of inflammatory markers like toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). ELISA and qPCR assays were used to study the inflammatory signals. BMP-7 signaling pathway activation was shown by the presence of phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. Utilizing the reactivity of polydopamine films to immobilize BMP-7 peptide onto metal substrates may provide a promising approach for applications in situations where reduction of inflammation around implants would be beneficial in improving surgical outcome, bone healing, and implant integration. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 969–979. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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