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Increasing activity and thermal resistance of Bacillus gibsonii alkaline protease (BgAP) by directed evolution

Authors

  • Ronny Martinez,

    1. RWTH Aachen University, Lehrstuhl fur Biotechnologie, Worringerweg 1, D-52074 Aachen, Germany; telephone: +49-241-80-24170; fax: +49-241-80-22387
    2. (Former Address) Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany
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  • Felix Jakob,

    1. RWTH Aachen University, Lehrstuhl fur Biotechnologie, Worringerweg 1, D-52074 Aachen, Germany; telephone: +49-241-80-24170; fax: +49-241-80-22387
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  • Ran Tu,

    1. Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China
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  • Petra Siegert,

    1. Henkel AG & Co. KGaA, Henkelstraße, Düsseldorf, Germany
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  • Karl-Heinz Maurer,

    1. Henkel AG & Co. KGaA, Henkelstraße, Düsseldorf, Germany
    Current affiliation:
    1. AB Enzymes GmbH, Feldbergstraße 78, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
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  • Ulrich Schwaneberg

    Corresponding author
    1. RWTH Aachen University, Lehrstuhl fur Biotechnologie, Worringerweg 1, D-52074 Aachen, Germany; telephone: +49-241-80-24170; fax: +49-241-80-22387
    • RWTH Aachen University, Lehrstuhl fur Biotechnologie, Worringerweg 1, D-52074 Aachen, Germany; telephone: +49-241-80-24170; fax: +49-241-80-22387
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Abstract

Bacillus gibsonii Alkaline Protease (BgAP) is a recently reported subtilisin protease exhibiting activity and stability properties suitable for applications in laundry and dish washing detergents. However, BgAP suffers from a significant decrease of activity at low temperatures. In order to increase BgAP activity at 15°C, a directed evolution campaign based on the SeSaM random mutagenesis method was performed. An optimized microtiter plate expression system in B. subtilis was established and classical proteolytic detection methods were adapted for high throughput screening. In parallel, the libraries were screened for increased residual proteolytic activity after incubation at 58°C. Three iterative rounds of directed BgAP evolution yielded a set of BgAP variants with increased specific activity (Kcat) at 15°C and increased thermal resistance. Recombination of both sets of amino acid substitutions resulted finally in variant MF1 with a 1.5-fold increased specific activity (15°C) and over 100 times prolonged half-life at 60°C (224 min compared to 2 min of the WT BgAP). None of the introduced amino acid substitutions were close to the active site of BgAP. Activity-altering amino acid substitutions were from non-charged to non-charged or from sterically demanding to less demanding. Thermal stability improvements were achieved by substitutions to negatively charged amino acids in loop areas of the BgAP surface which probably fostered ionic and hydrogen bonds interactions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 711–720. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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