Conflict of interest: nothing to declare.
Engineering superficial zone features in tissue engineered cartilage†
Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Volume 110, Issue 5, pages 1476–1486, May 2013
How to Cite
Chen, T., Hilton, M. J., Brown, E. B., Zuscik, M. J. and Awad, H. A. (2013), Engineering superficial zone features in tissue engineered cartilage. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 110: 1476–1486. doi: 10.1002/bit.24799
- Issue published online: 20 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 13 DEC 2012 08:57AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 22 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 25 JUL 2012
- The Whitaker Foundation
- Empire State Stem Cell Board. Grant Number: NYSTEM N08G-019
- DoD BCRP. Grant Number: W81XWH-09-1-0405
- NIH. Grant Numbers: R01 AR056696, DP2 OD006501, R01 AR057022, P30 AR061307
- tissue engineering;
- interstitial flow;
- shear stress;
- two photon microscopy
A major challenge in cartilage tissue engineering is the need to recreate the native tissue's anisotropic extracellular matrix structure. This anisotropy has important mechanical and biological consequences and could be crucial for integrative repair. Here, we report that hydrodynamic conditions that mimic the motion-induced flow fields in between the articular surfaces in the synovial joint induce the formation of a distinct superficial layer in tissue engineered cartilage hydrogels, with enhanced production of cartilage matrix proteoglycan and Type II collagen. Moreover, the flow stimulation at the surface induces the production of the surface zone protein Proteoglycan 4 (aka PRG4 or lubricin). Analysis of second harmonic generation signature of collagen in this superficial layer reveals a highly aligned fibrillar matrix that resembles the alignment pattern in native tissue's surface zone, suggesting that mimicking synovial fluid flow at the cartilage surface in hydrodynamic bioreactors could be key to creating engineered cartilage with superficial zone features. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1476–1486. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.