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Programmable mechanical stimulation influences tendon homeostasis in a bioreactor system

Authors

  • Tao Wang,

    1. Centre for Orthopaedic Translational Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, M Block, QE2 Medical Centre, Nedlands, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; telephone: 61-8-93464050; fax: 61-8-93463210
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  • Zhen Lin,

    1. Centre for Orthopaedic Translational Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, M Block, QE2 Medical Centre, Nedlands, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; telephone: 61-8-93464050; fax: 61-8-93463210
    2. Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medicine Science, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
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  • Robert E. Day,

    1. Department of Medical Engineering and Physics, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Bruce Gardiner,

    1. School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Western Australia (M002), Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Euphemie Landao-Bassonga,

    1. Centre for Orthopaedic Translational Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, M Block, QE2 Medical Centre, Nedlands, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; telephone: 61-8-93464050; fax: 61-8-93463210
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  • Jonas Rubenson,

    1. School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, Musculoskeletal Tissue Mechanics and Muscle Energetics University of Western Australia (M408), Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Thomas B. Kirk,

    1. Curtin University, Bentley, Chancellory, Western Australia, Australia
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  • David W. Smith,

    1. School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Western Australia (M002), Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
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  • David G. Lloyd,

    1. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, Australia
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  • Gerard Hardisty,

    1. St John of God Medical Clinic, Perth, Subiaco, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Allan Wang,

    1. Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
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  • Qiujian Zheng,

    1. Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medicine Science, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
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  • Ming H. Zheng

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Orthopaedic Translational Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, M Block, QE2 Medical Centre, Nedlands, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; telephone: 61-8-93464050; fax: 61-8-93463210
    • Centre for Orthopaedic Translational Research, School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, M Block, QE2 Medical Centre, Nedlands, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; telephone: 61-8-93464050; fax: 61-8-93463210
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Abstract

Identification of functional programmable mechanical stimulation (PMS) on tendon not only provides the insight of the tendon homeostasis under physical/pathological condition, but also guides a better engineering strategy for tendon regeneration. The aims of the study are to design a bioreactor system with PMS to mimic the in vivo loading conditions, and to define the impact of different cyclic tensile strain on tendon. Rabbit Achilles tendons were loaded in the bioreactor with/without cyclic tensile loading (0.25 Hz for 8 h/day, 0–9% for 6 days). Tendons without loading lost its structure integrity as evidenced by disorientated collagen fiber, increased type III collagen expression, and increased cell apoptosis. Tendons with 3% of cyclic tensile loading had moderate matrix deterioration and elevated expression levels of MMP-1, 3, and 12, whilst exceeded loading regime of 9% caused massive rupture of collagen bundle. However, 6% of cyclic tensile strain was able to maintain the structural integrity and cellular function. Our data indicated that an optimal PMS is required to maintain the tendon homeostasis and there is only a narrow range of tensile strain that can induce the anabolic action. The clinical impact of this study is that optimized eccentric training program is needed to achieve maximum beneficial effects on chronic tendinopathy management. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1495–1507. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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