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Figure S1. Equivalent electrical circuit models (A,B) that are identical to (A) and (B) but linearly transformed, respectively.

Figure S2. Corresponding Bode plot to the complex plane plot shown in Figure 4B. EDC was −375 mVAg/AgCl. EAC was 5 mV. Frequency range was 100,000–0.1 Hz.

Figure S3. Example of the EEC (Fig. 1A) fit to the impedance data at a current of 82 μA. A fit using Kramers–Kronig transformations is also shown. Residuals for each respective fit and the goodness of fit are also shown. EDC was −340 mVAg/AgCl. EAC was 5 mV. Frequency range was 100,000–0.1 Hz.

Figure S4. Current decrease during acetate removal by washout with acetate-free growth media (left). Non-turnover slow-scan cyclic voltammogram of the G. sulfurreducens biofilm (right). Scan rate was 1 mV/s. The inset shows the transition from turnover to non-turnover conditions using cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 10 mV/s. From top to bottom, each represents the condition where normalized current was 100%, 30%, 2%, <1%.

Figure S5. Example of the EEC (Fig. 1B) fit to the impedance data taken at 530 rpm in Figure 6D. A fit using Kramers–Kronig transformations is also shown. Residuals for each respective fit and the goodness of fit are also shown. EDC was −340 mVAg/AgCl. EAC was 5 mV. Frequency range was 100,000–0.01 Hz.

Figure S6. A plot showing the dependence of heme content on ΔE. Heme content calculated based off of Equation (1) and a pseudocapacitance, C1, of 740 μF. ΔE for the biofilm is indicated by the vertical solid line and is the difference between the biofilm open circuit potential, −460 mVAg/AgCl, and the formal potential of the overall electron transfer mechanism, −340 mVAg/AgCl.

Table SI. Fitted parameters using the EEC in Figure 1B corresponding to the impedance data shown in Figures 6 and 6.

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