Zymomonas mobilis cells were entrapped in K. carrageenan. Growth was observed with the immobilized cell preparation. The kinetic and yield parameters for the conversion of fructose to ethanol were nearly identical to free cells. The same preparation of immobilized cells was used in six repeated batch runs and at the end sixthbatch fructose was converted to ethanol more rapidly and efficiently with ethanol productivity of 14 g/L h and 96% conversion of fructose. The effect of high fructose and ethanol levels on specific fructose uptake rate and ethanol productivity was studied and quantitatively analyzed.