Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Cover image for Vol. 109 Issue 2

February 2012

Volume 109, Issue 2

Pages C1–C1, fmi–fmvi, 307–613

  1. Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Reviews
    6. Articles
    7. Communication to the Editors
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  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Reviews
    6. Articles
    7. Communication to the Editors
  3. Spotlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Reviews
    6. Articles
    7. Communication to the Editors
    1. Comparison testing (page fmvi)

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24274

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Reviews
    6. Articles
    7. Communication to the Editors
    1. Review

      Residual DNA analysis in biologics development: Review of measurement and quantitation technologies and future directions (pages 307–317)

      Xing Wang, Donna M. Morgan, Gan Wang and Ned M. Mozier

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23343

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      Methods of analysis for residual DNA in recombinantly expressed biopharmaceuticals are summarized regarding their advantages and drawbacks. Also discussed are the concerns regarding the safety of low levels of DNA and new data are presented and discussed. Novel approaches and future directions regarding testing are suggested.

  5. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Reviews
    6. Articles
    7. Communication to the Editors
    1. Biocatalysis, Protein Engineering, and Nanobiotechnology

      Enzyme precipitate coatings of glucose oxidase onto carbon paper for biofuel cell applications (pages 318–324)

      Mike Fischback, Ki Young Kwon, Inseon Lee, Su Jeong Shin, Hyun Gyu Park, Byoung Chan Kim, Yongchai Kwon, Hee-Tae Jung, Jungbae Kim and Su Ha

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23317

    2. Inhibition of escherichia coli and proteus mirabilis adhesion and biofilm formation on medical grade silicone surface (pages 336–345)

      Rong Wang, Koon Gee Neoh, Zhilong Shi, En-Tang Kang, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah and Edmund Chiong

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23342

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      Pre-treatment of medical grade silicone with polydopamine (PDA) followed by grafting with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) results in a stable antibacterial coating with low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The adhesion of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis on the modified surface was reduced by ≥90% compared with the pristine surface, and biofilm formation by these two bacteria was also significantly inhibited. This strategy can potentially combat infections related to silicone-based implant devices.

    3. Biofuels and Environmental Biotechnology

      Extraction of lignins from aqueous–ionic liquid mixtures by organic solvents (pages 346–352)

      Qin Xin, Katie Pfeiffer, John M. Prausnitz, Douglas S. Clark and Harvey W. Blanch

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24337

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      Ionic liquid pretreatment can be used to dissolve whole biomass, including cellulose and lignin. This work demonstrates the extraction of lignin and lignin model compounds from ionic liquid-water solutions with an immiscible organic solvent. Solvent extraction is a viable technique for lignin recovery after biomass pretreatment, with water content, pH, and lignin type all affecting the extraction efficiency.

    4. Using FTIR to predict saccharification from enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated biomasses (pages 353–362)

      Deborah L. Sills and James M. Gossett

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23314

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      FTIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate regression, accurately predicted sugar conversions (g sugars/100 g potential sugar) and sugar yields (g sugars/100 g dry solids) from cellulase-mediated hydrolysis of six plant biomasses that underwent four levels of low-temperature NaOH pretreatment. The sugar-yield models are noteworthy for their ability to predict enzymatic saccharification per mass dry solids without a priori knowledge of the composition of the solids.

    5. Scale-Up of flat plate photobioreactors considering diffuse and direct light characteristics (pages 363–370)

      Jason C. Quinn, Chris W. Turner and Thomas H. Bradley

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23324

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      The validation of a scalable microalgae (Nanochloropsis salina) growth model incorporating diffuse and direct light effects is presented and used for photobioreactor design optimization. The work is founded on a core-sample technique which utilizes small scale growth characterization based on photosynthetic irradiance response to accurately predict the productivity of a large-scale system (2 different photobioreactor geometries) at a variety of light intensities.

    6. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (pages 371–380)

      Jiri Urban, Frantisek Svec and Jean M.J. Fréchet

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23326

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      Porcine lipase was immobilized on poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic support activated via photografting with vinylazlactone. This enzymatic reactor was then used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides and soybean oil into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel.

    7. Evaluations of cellulose accessibilities of lignocelluloses by solute exclusion and protein adsorption techniques (pages 381–389)

      Q.Q. Wang, Z. He, Z. Zhu, Y.-H.P. Zhang, Y. Ni, X.L. Luo and J.Y. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23330

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      This study evaluated solute exclusion, protein and enzyme adsorption methods for the determination of cellulose accessibility to cellulase. It was found that approximately over 90% of substrate enzymatic conversion was contributed by cellulase accessible pore surfaces for a set of lignocellulosic substrates with identical chemical structure but varied pore surface areas. Enzymatic cellulose conversions of a set of differently pretreated lignocellulosic substrates correlated very well to cellulose accessibilities and the amount of cellulase adsorbed.

    8. Tissue-specific biomass recalcitrance in corn stover pretreated with liquid hot-water: Enzymatic hydrolysis (part 1) (pages 390–397)

      Meijuan Zeng, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael R. Ladisch, Nathan S. Mosier, Wilfred Vermerris, Chia-Ping Huang and Debra M. Sherman

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23337

    9. Tissue-specific biomass recalcitrance in corn stover pretreated with liquid hot-water: SEM imaging (part 2) (pages 398–404)

      Meijuan Zeng, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael R. Ladisch, Nathan S. Mosier, Wilfred Vermerris, Chia-Ping Huang and Debra M. Sherman

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23335

    10. Syntrophic interactions improve power production in formic acid fed MFCs operated with set anode potentials or fixed resistances (pages 405–414)

      Dan Sun, Douglas F. Call, Patrick D. Kiely, Aijie Wang and Bruce E. Logan

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23348

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      Under both set anode potentials mode and fixed resistance mode, power production in formic acid fed MFCs was improved by syntrophic interactions through an acetic acid generation from formic acid by Acetobacterium and current generation by Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    11. Three-reaction model for the anaerobic digestion of microalgae (pages 415–425)

      Francis Mairet, Olivier Bernard, Elliot Cameron, Monique Ras, Laurent Lardon, Jean-Philippe Steyer and Benoît Chachuat

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23350

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      A reduced dynamic model for anaerobic digestion of microalgae is developed, accounting for the uncoupling between methane production and ammonium release. Three reactions are considered: two parallel hydrolysis-acidogenesis steps for, respectively, sugars/lipids and proteins, followed by a methanogenesis step. The model accurately reproduces experimental data for anaerobic digestion of the freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Its reduced complexity makes it suitable for developing advanced control and monitoring strategies.

    12. Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in saline soil using U-tube microbial fuel cells (pages 426–433)

      Xin Wang, Zhang Cai, Qixing Zhou, Zhineng Zhang and Cuihong Chen

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23351

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      Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were demonstrated as an effective in-situ biostimulation method for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in saline soil. The growth of hydrocarbon degradation bacteria (HDB) close to the anode was accelerated by inserting in a U-MFC. Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were accelerated.

    13. Bioprocess Engineering and Supporting Technologies

      Kinetic and growth parameters of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultivated in tubular photobioreactor under different cell circulation systems (pages 444–450)

      Lívia S. Ferreira, Mayla S. Rodrigues, Attilio Converti, Sunao Sato and João C.M. Carvalho

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23315

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      Arthrospira platensis is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium able to fix CO2 and is also commercially important because of its high nutritional value. The main aim of this work was to present alternatives to the traditional airlift circulation system for this microorganism cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. The airlift system was compared to the motor driven pumping and pressurized ones, thus providing valuable knowledge and information in this field.

    14. Putting cells under pressure: A simple and efficient way to enhance the productivity of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate in processes with Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (pages 451–461)

      Stéphanie Follonier, Bernhard Henes, Sven Panke and Manfred Zinn

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23312

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      This paper describes the effect of elevated pressure (7 bar) on the physiology of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 during production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA). It was found that elevated pressure neither reduced bacterial growth nor biopolymer synthesis but that the levels of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide must be controlled to avoid growth inhibition. Hence, it was concluded that elevated pressure is an efficient way to enhance the oxygen transfer rate during fermentations with P. putida and boost mcl-PHA volumetric productivity.

    15. Improved enzyme production by bio-pellets of Aspergillus niger: Targeted morphology engineering using titanate microparticles (pages 462–471)

      Habib Driouch, Robert Hänsch, Thomas Wucherpfennig, Rainer Krull and Christoph Wittmann

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23313

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      The use of titanate microparticles added to the bioprocess allows tailor-made growth of filamentous fungi. Exemplified for Aspergillus niger, the addition of the micro material creates core shell pellets of the fungus with excellent nutrient supply of cells in the pellet interior allowing superior production of recombinant enzymes. This opens novel possibilities for tailor-made morphology design of filamentous fungi, especially for pellet based processes which have a long and strong industrial relevance for industrial production.

    16. A population balance equation model of aggregation dynamics in Taxus suspension cell cultures (pages 472–482)

      Martin E. Kolewe, Susan C. Roberts and Michael A. Henson

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23321

    17. Viability and membrane potential analysis of Bacillus megaterium cells by impedance flow cytometry (pages 483–492)

      F. David, M. Hebeisen, G. Schade, E. Franco-Lara and M. Di Berardino

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23345

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      Information about physiological cell states at a single cell level is valuable for bioprocess optimization and control. Impedance flow cytometry, a novel chip-based and label-free single cell analysis technique, can provide such information, as shown in this study with the simultaneous detection of membrane potential and viability states of Bacillus megaterium.

    18. Bioseparations and Downstream Processing

      Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae (pages 493–501)

      Nicholas B. Wyatt, Lindsey M. Gloe, Patrick V. Brady, John C. Hewson, Anne M. Grillet, Matthew G. Hankins and Phillip I. Pohl

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23319

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      In this work, two critical conditions of solution pH and ferric chloride concentration are identified for high efficiency flocculation of a freshwater algae (Chlorella zofingiensis). The dependence of these critical conditions on algae concentration is also discussed. Experimental results are explained via modeling of surface complexation and differential settling. The methods discussed herein can be extended to other freshwater algae to design effective flocculation systems.

    19. High-throughput assessment of antigen conformational stability by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and its application to excipient screening (pages 502–516)

      Sébastien Dasnoy, Vivien Le Bras, Véronique Préat and Dominique Lemoine

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23336

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      In high-throughput screening (HTS) studies, the use of UV absorption spectroscopy was limited to measuring sample turbidity and protein concentration. The authors have demonstrated that this widespread and cost-effective technique can be used for evaluating the effect of excipients on protein conformational stability in HTS mode.

    20. Cellular and Metabolic Engineering

      Growth and productivity impacts of periplasmic nuclease expression in an Escherichia coli Fab' fragment production strain (pages 517–527)

      Darren N. Nesbeth, Miguel-Angel Perez-Pardo, Shaukat Ali, John Ward and Eli Keshavarz-Moore

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23316

    21. Engineering Science of Biological Systems

      Facilitated diffusion of myoglobin and creatine kinase and reaction–diffusion constraints of aerobic metabolism under steady-state conditions in skeletal muscle (pages 545–558)

      S.K. Dasika, S.T. Kinsey and B.R. Locke

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23329

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      The effects of reaction rate and cell size on the effectiveness factors for muscle metabolism in a variety of animals (purple triangles – fish; green circles – crustaceans; black circles – reptiles; yellow circles –mammals; blue circles – amphibians). Over a wide range of mitochondrial densities (A, B = 0.01; C, D = 0.025) the addition of creatine kinase and myoglobin have no effect on the reaction to diffusion control (A, C with creatine kinase/myoglobin; B and D without creatine kinase/myoglobin).

    22. Sensitivity analysis of reaction-diffusion constraints in muscle energetics (pages 559–571)

      S.K. Dasika, S.T. Kinsey and B.R. Locke

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23347

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      The effects of oxygen supply ((A) O2 = 7.85 µM, (B) O2 = 15 µM, (C) O2 = 25 µM, (D) O2 = 35.1 µM) on reaction-diffusion control in muscle (radius 50 µm) aerobic metabolism (color indicates the effectiveness factor in the ranges: red 1–0.9, orange 0.9–0.8, yellow 0.8–0.7, green 0.7–0.6, cyan 0.6–0.5, blue <0.5). The volume fraction of mitochondria that can sustain high rates under reaction control increases with increasing oxygen supply.

    23. Synthetic Biology

      Integrating computational methods to retrofit enzymes to synthetic pathways (pages 572–582)

      Elizabeth Brunk, Marilisa Neri, Ivano Tavernelli, Vassily Hatzimanikatis and Ursula Rothlisberger

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23334

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      An in silico scheme, known as BNICE, assembles biosynthetic routes to produce 3HP from pyruvate. Metabolic pathways from reactant to product are generated using generalized enzyme reactions. From the pool of enzymes within this third level EC class, a potential candidate can be selected and optimized to act as the novel biocatalyst for the desired reaction. This strategy is illustrated as a filter of potential enzyme candidates that finds the most suitable and optimal catalysts for the desired reaction.

    24. Tissue Engineering and Delivery Systems

      Heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediates shear stress-induced endothelial gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (pages 583–594)

      Maria Nikmanesh, Zhong-Dong Shi and John M. Tarbell

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23302

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      Shear stress significantly increased the endothelial gene expression of CD31+/CD45- derived from embryonic stem cells (ESC). After reduction of the glycocalyx component heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) with Heparinase, the shear stress-induced expressions of most of those genes were abolished. These data suggest that HSPG is a mechanosensor mediating shear stress-induced endothelial differentiation from ESC.

    25. A novel 3D liver organoid system for elucidation of hepatic glucose metabolism (pages 595–604)

      Yanhua Lu, Guoliang Zhang, Chong Shen, Korkut Uygun, Martin L. Yarmush and Qin Meng

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23349

  6. Communication to the Editors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Reviews
    6. Articles
    7. Communication to the Editors
    1. Biofuels and Environmental Biotechnology

      Co-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase and Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase for enhanced arsenic accumulation (pages 605–608)

      Shen-Long Tsai, Shailendra Singh, Nancy A. DaSilva and Wilfred Chen

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23325

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      Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to enhance the arsenic accumulating capacity as a low-cost and efficient biosorbent for environmental cleanup. Yeast cells producing both phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS) and cysteine desulfhydrase showed a higher level of arsenic accumulation than a simple cumulative effect of expressing both enzymes, indicating the coordinated action of hydrogen sulfide and phytochelatins in the overall bioaccumulation of arsenic.

    2. Cellular and Metabolic Engineering

      Metabolic characterization and genes for the conversion of biphenyl in Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4 (pages 609–613)

      Ang Li, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Wen-Qing Pi, Ji-Ti Zhou, Zhong-Hui Gai and Ping Xu

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23333

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      The organization of bph gene clusters from various strains: LA-4, Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4 bph gene cluster; LB400, B. xenovorans LB400 bph gene cluster; KF707, P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 bph gene cluster; KF715, P. putida KF715 bph gene cluster; KKS102, Acidovorax sp. KKS102 bph gene cluster; RHA1, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 bph gene cluster. Homologous genes with the same function are depicted in the same color.

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