Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Cover image for Vol. 109 Issue 3

March 2012

Volume 109, Issue 3

Pages C1–C1, fmi–fmvi, 615–851

  1. Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
    1. You have free access to this content
  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
  3. Spotlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
  4. Editors' Choices

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
    1. Editors' Choice

      Zonal rate model for stacked membrane chromatography part II: Characterizing ion-exchange membrane chromatography under protein retention conditions (pages 615–629)

      Patrick Francis, Eric von Lieres and Charles Haynes

      Article first published online: 25 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The authors present a Zonal Rate Model that is shown to improve upon current mathematical models for the description of protein breakthrough from stacked membrane chromatography. The model implements a virtual radial partitioning of both the membrane stack and external hold up volumes thus accurately describing all nonidealities related to dispersion and flow distribution. This, in turn, allows for a rigorous evaluation of putative protein adsorption models onto an ion exchange membrane chromatography module.

  5. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
    1. Biocatalysis, Protein Engineering, and Nanobiotechnology

      Novel iron–sulfur containing NADPH-Reductase from Nocardia farcinica IFM10152 and fusion construction with CYP51 lanosterol demethylase (pages 630–636)

      Kwon-Young Choi, Eun-Ok Jung, Da-Hye Jung, Bishnu Prasad Pandey, Nahum Lee, Hyungdon Yun, Hyung-yun Park and Byung-Gee Kim

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24359

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      CYP51 and iron-sulfur containing FprD were fused together with designed linker sequences. CYP51-FprD fusion enzymes showed distinct spectral properties of both flavoprotein and CYP. CYP51-FprD F1 and F2 in recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) catalyzed demethylation of lanosterol more efficiently, with kcat/Km values of 96.91 and 105.79 nmol/min−1/nmol, respectively, which are about 35-fold higher compared to those of CYP51 and FprD alone.

    2. Biofuels and Environmental Biotechnology

      Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium (pages 637–646)

      Amber R. Boles, Teresa Conneely, Robert McKeever, Paul Nixon, Klaus R. Nüsslein and Sarina J. Ergas

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24354

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      Elemental sulfur was used as an electron donor to reduce perchlorate to harmless products in a pilot scale packed bed bioreactor at the Massachusetts Military Reservation. Issues of scale-up, groundwater deoxygenation and the effect of the co-contaminants, nitrate and RDX, are discussed. The microbial community structure was investigated using DGGE community fingerprint analysis, and functional gene amplification, identification and quantification. Molecular biology results provided insights into bioreactor performance that could not be gained through examination of the water quality data.

    3. Rapid determination of syringyl: Guaiacyl ratios using FT-Raman spectroscopy (pages 647–656)

      Lan Sun, Patanjali Varanasi, Fan Yang, Dominique Loqué, Blake A. Simmons and Seema Singh

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24348

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      A spectral deconvolution method was developed to rapidly and quantitatively determine syringyl to guaiacyl ratios of plant materials using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The method was demonstrated to be a valid method to measure a wide range of S/G ratios derived from different plant species, evaluate genetic modifications, compare ecotypes, and assess plants at different developmental stages.

    4. Acetate enhances startup of a H2-producing microbial biocathode (pages 657–664)

      Adriaan W. Jeremiasse, Hubertus V.M. Hamelers, Elsemiek Croese and Cees J.N. Buisman

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24338

    5. A mechanistic model for enzymatic saccharification of cellulose using continuous distribution kinetics I: Depolymerization by EGI and CBHI (pages 665–675)

      Andrew J. Griggs, Jonathan J. Stickel and James J. Lischeske

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23355

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      A mechanistic model for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose has been developed. In part I, the mathematical description of the polymeric cellulose and its representation as a solid substrate with limited accessibility is presented. The distinct modes of action of an endoglucanase (EGI) and an exoglucanase (CBHI), which are responsible for cellulose deconstruction, are also accounted for in the model. Model simulations illustrate the time evolution of cellulose population distributions that result from enzymatic digestion.

    6. A mechanistic model for enzymatic saccharification of cellulose using continuous distribution kinetics II: Cooperative enzyme action, solution kinetics, and product inhibition (pages 676–685)

      Andrew J. Griggs, Jonathan J. Stickel and James J. Lischeske

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23354

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      A mechanistic model for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose has been developed. In part II, the kinetic model from part I is expanded to include solution-phase kinetics, an innovative product-inhibition scheme, and sterically hindered enzyme adsorption, based on current structural knowledge of the component enzymes. The model was used to explore several potential rate-limiting phenomena (e.g. accessibility, inhibition, degree of polymerization). Preliminary simulation results indicate that the accessibility of the substrate to the enzymes is a key rate-determining factor.

    7. Effect of various factors on ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass by Thermoanaerobacterium AK17 (pages 686–694)

      Arnheidur Ran Almarsdottir, Margret Audur Sigurbjornsdottir and Johann Orlygsson

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24346

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      The present investigation is aimed towards the production of ethanol from complex lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterium, isolated from a hot spring in Iceland, was used for production of ethanol and hydrogen with the main aim to investigate sustainable biofuel production. The pros and cons of using thermophiles for biofuel production were described and the effect of various factors to maximize ethanol yields were investigated.

    8. Bioprocess Engineering and Supporting Technologies

      Effects of biaxial oscillatory shear stress on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology (pages 695–707)

      Amlan Chakraborty, Sutirtha Chakraborty, Venkatakrishna R. Jala, Bodduluri Haribabu, M. Keith Sharp and R. Eric Berson

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24352

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      The effects of the directionality of pulsatile WSS on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology were investigated for cells grown in a Petri dish orbiting on a shaker platform. Since WSS on the bottom of the dish is two-dimensional, a new directional oscillatory shear index (DOSI) was developed to quantify the directionality of oscillating shear. Statistical analyses of the individual and interacting effects of multiple factors (DOSI, shear magnitudes, and orbital speeds) showed that DOSI significantly affected all the responses, indicating that directionality is an important determinant of cellular responses.

    9. Adaptive evolution for fast growth on glucose and the effects on the regulation of glucose transport system in Clostridium tyrobutyricum (pages 708–718)

      Ling Jiang, Shuang Li, Yi Hu, Qing Xu and He Huang

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23346

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      By combining adaptive evolution strategy and high-density fermentation mode, the authors successfully evolved a Clostridium tyrobutyricum mutant with significantly improved butyric acid volumetric productivity and enhanced glucose consumption rate.

    10. Preventing spontaneous genetic rearrangements in the transgene cassettes of adenovirus vectors (pages 719–728)

      Matthew G. Cottingham, Fionnadh Carroll, Susan J. Morris, Alison V. Turner, Aisling M. Vaughan, Melissa C. Kapulu, Stefano Colloca, Loredana Siani, Sarah C. Gilbert and Adrian V.S. Hill

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24342

    11. Cytochrome c dissolved in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride type ionic liquid undergoes a quasi-reversible redox reaction up to 140°C (pages 729–735)

      Kaori Tamura, Nobuhumi Nakamura and Hiroyuki Ohno

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24357

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      The solubility of cytochrome c in various ionic liquids (ILs) has been analyzed. The solubility showed a good relationship with polarity parameters of ILs. The dissolved cytochrome c was found to keep its redox activity in some polar ILs. The redox response of the dissolved cytochrome c was detected in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride up to 140 °C.

    12. Bioseparations and Downstream Processing

      Branched polyethylene glycol for protein precipitation (pages 736–746)

      Siow-Leng Sim, Tao He, Anne Tscheliessnig, Monika Mueller, Reginald B.H. Tan and Alois Jungbauer

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24343

    13. A modified IMAC method for the capture of target protein from mammalian cell culture harvest containing metal chelating species (pages 747–753)

      Aming Zhang, Cheng Zhang, Veena Warikoo, Jonathan Forstrom and Frank Riske

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24353

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      The addition of copper ion to a mammalian cell culture harvest results in target enzyme binding to an uncharged metal chelate column. 5mM copper is optimal for target enzyme recovery.

    14. Enhanced recovery of antitumor ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia by novel chemical conversion strategy (pages 754–762)

      Jia-Le Wang, Tingyue Gu and Jian-Jiang Zhong

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24358

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      The removal of analog impurities presents a major challenge in the purification of high-value biochemicals (such as those derived from fermentation or herbs) within acceptable cost and time constraints. Ganoderic acid T (GA-T), an antitumor drug candidate, is very difficult to purify from the mycelia of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum due to co-purifying, analog impurities. A novel pretreatment process with three consecutive chemical conversion steps, namely hydrolysis–acetylation–hydrolysis, was developed to convert two key analog impurities to GA-T.

    15. Cellular and Metabolic Engineering

      Collisional fragmentation of central carbon metabolites in LC-MS/MS increases precision of 13C metabolic flux analysis (pages 763–771)

      Martin Rühl, Beat Rupp, Katharina Nöh, Wolfgang Wiechert, Uwe Sauer and Nicola Zamboni

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24344

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For 13C metabolic flux analysis applied to microbial central carbon metabolism, this article demonstrates that the precision of estimation is improved with tandem mass spectrometry. Specifically, the fragmentation induced in a collision cell provides positional information on 13C enrichment which is missed when analyzing only whole intermediates of central metabolism. Additionally, a special mass spectrometry acquisition technique is presented to enable efficient measurement of a large set of intact metabolites and fragments thereof.

    16. A novel population balance model to investigate the kinetics of in vitro cell proliferation: Part I. model development (pages 772–781)

      Sarah Fadda, Alberto Cincotti and Giacomo Cao

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24351

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      The image depicts a schematic representation of the cell cycle considered in this work.

    17. A novel population balance model to investigate the kinetics of in vitro cell proliferation: Part II. numerical solution, parameters' determination, and model outcomes (pages 782–796)

      Sarah Fadda, Alberto Cincotti and Giacomo Cao

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24350

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Simulated temporal evolution of the number percentages of cells falling into the different cell cycle phases (equation image with P = G1, S, G2/M) and the normalized total counts are presented.

    18. Engineering Science of Biological Systems

      Albumin handling by renal tubular epithelial cells in a microfluidic bioreactor (pages 797–803)

      Nicholas Ferrell, Kevin B. Ricci, Joseph Groszek, Joseph T. Marmerstein and William H. Fissell

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24339

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      Kidney epithelial cells reclaim protein through receptor mediated endocytosis. Shear stress alters kidney epithelial cell response to protein exposure. The image shows uptake of fluorescently labeled albumin by opossum kidney epithelial cells exposed to fluid flow.

    19. Large eddy simulation of mechanical mixing in anaerobic digesters (pages 804–812)

      Binxin Wu

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24345

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      Large eddy simulation of mechanical mixing in anaerobic digesters is conducted using Smagorinsky-Lilly, wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity, and kinetic energy transport models, respectively, in which the impeller rotation is characterized by the sliding mesh method. The simulation results indicate that the kinetic energy transport model performs the best in terms of predicting the impeller power and flow numbers, and that a large eddy simulation performs better than a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation in the study of turbulent flow.

    20. Tissue Engineering and Delivery Systems

      Fiber alignment and coculture with fibroblasts improves the differentiated phenotype of murine embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering (pages 813–822)

      Ian C. Parrag, Peter W. Zandstra and Kimberly A. Woodhouse

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23353

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      Controlling the differentiated phenotype of embryonic stem cell-derived cells is critical to the development of stem cell-based therapies. This work explores the use of controlled topographical cues from synthetic scaffolds and coculture with fibroblasts to influence the phenotype of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for use in cardiac tissue engineering applications.

    21. Liposomes surface conjugated with human hemoglobin target delivery to macrophages (pages 823–829)

      Ning Zhang and Andre F. Palmer

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24340

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      This work describes a novel strategy to deliver therapeutic molecules into macrophages, taking advantage of CD163 receptor-mediated endocytosis of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. The drug delivery system described here consists of hemoglobin (Hb) surface decorated liposomes that can encapsulate any therapeutic molecule of interest. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that this delivery system is specific towards macrophages and demonstrates the feasibility of using this approach in targeted drug delivery.

    22. Hydrogel design for supporting neurite outgrowth and promoting gene delivery to maximize neurite extension (pages 830–839)

      Jaclyn A. Shepard, Alyson C. Stevans, Samantha Holland, Christine E. Wang, Ariella Shikanov and Lonnie D. Shea

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24355

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An in vitro co-culture system has been developed to investigate neurite extension as a function of hydrogel design parameters using gene delivery. Accessory cells (blue) migrate through the hydrogel and access the entrapped DNA (red, left) that encodes for nerve growth factor (NGF). The sustained expression of NGF supports neurite outgrowth (red, right) of the co-encapsulated DRG explants. The hydrogel design that effectively balances the requirements for nerve growth and gene delivery maximized neurite outgrowth within hydrogels.

  6. Communications to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
    1. Bioseparations and Downstream Processing

      Removal versus fragmentation of amyloid-forming precursors via membrane filtration (pages 840–845)

      David Posada, Peter M. Tessier and Amir H. Hirsa

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24341

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      The use of membrane filtration for removing protein aggregates in protein solutions may result in the additional effect of aggregate fragmentation. Fragmented aggregates, smaller than the membrane pore size, may be generated and passed through the membrane, diminishing the net benefit of filtration for aggregate removal. The presence of protein aggregates in a solution can significantly accelerate the kinetics of amyloid formation, which is associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's.

    2. Cellular and Metabolic Engineering

      Compound toxicity screening and structure–activity relationship modeling in Escherichia coli (pages 846–850)

      Anne-Gaëlle Planson, Pablo Carbonell, Elodie Paillard, Nicolas Pollet and Jean-Loup Faulon

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24356

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      A robust model developed for predicting toxicity in E. coli is presented in this work. The predictor based on experimental toxicity values can be used in many applications from metabolic engineering to drug design, representing a valuable tool for synthetic biology and drug discovery.

  7. Errata

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Editors' Choices
    6. Articles
    7. Communications to the Editor
    8. Errata
    1. Erratum

      You have free access to this content
      Erratum: Design and validation of a pulsatile perfusion bioreactor for 3D high cell density cultures (page 851)

      Julie A. Chouinard, Serge Gagnon, Marc G. Couture, Alain Lévesque and Patrick Vermette

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.23292

      This article corrects:

      Design and validation of a pulsatile perfusion bioreactor for 3D high cell density cultures

      Vol. 104, Issue 6, 1215–1223, Article first published online: 14 JUL 2009

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