Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Cover image for Vol. 109 Issue 7

July 2012

Volume 109, Issue 7

Pages C1–C1, fmi–fmvi, 1601–1886

  1. Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Articles
    6. Communication to the Editors
    7. Communications to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Volume 109, Number 7, July 2012 (page C1)

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24305

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      Cover Picture: High-resolution scanning electron microscopy image showing cells adapting bridging (center) and flat (edges) attachment morphology types. See related article by O'Brien et. al., Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Volume 109, Number 6 (June, 2012), pages 1583-1594. (Image courtesy of Dr. Ryan McCoy).

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Articles
    6. Communication to the Editors
    7. Communications to the Editor
  3. Spotlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Articles
    6. Communication to the Editors
    7. Communications to the Editor
  4. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Articles
    6. Communication to the Editors
    7. Communications to the Editor
    1. Biocatalysis, Protein Engineering, and Nanobiotechnology

      Glucose/O2 biofuel cell based on enzymes, redox mediators, and Multiple-walled carbon nanotubes deposited by AC-electrophoresis then stabilized by electropolymerized polypyrrole (pages 1601–1609)

      Malika Ammam and Jan Fransaer

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24438

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      The main steps of the manufacturing process of the glucose biofuel cell and the resulting power output versus cell voltage are presented.

    2. Metabolic engineering of thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis for chiral pure D-2,3-butanediol production (pages 1610–1621)

      Qingzhao Wang, Tao Chen, Xueming Zhao and Jauhleene Chamu

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24427

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      The ldh deletion of Bacillus licheniformis triggered the alsS transcription to increase by 5 fold at pH 7.0 and by 10 fold at pH 5.0. Combined with pH (5.0) and aeration (5%) control, ldh mutant BL5 and BL8 can efficiently ferment glucose and xylose to D-(−) 2, 3-butanediol.

    3. Biofuels and Environmental Biotechnology

      Bacterial chemotaxis toward a NAPL source within a pore-scale microfluidic chamber (pages 1622–1628)

      Xiaopu Wang, Tao Long and Roseanne M. Ford

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24437

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      Bacterial suspension inside the microfluidic device near the NAPL interface.

    4. The granule size distribution in an anammox-based granular sludge reactor affects the conversion—Implications for modeling (pages 1629–1636)

      E.I.P. Volcke, C. Picioreanu, B. De Baets and M.C.M. van Loosdrecht

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24443

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      Autotrophic nitrogen removal in granular sludge reactors is significantly affected by the granule size and its distribution. Nitrite oxidizing bacteria are present in the smallest granules, while they are outcompeted by anammox bacteria in larger granules. Moreover, the interaction in terms of the exchange of solutes between granules of different sizes cannot be neglected. The methodology for modeling the granule size distribution—including the nature of the characteristic diameter—influences the simulation results.

    5. Development of a process for efficient use of CO2 from flue gases in the production of photosynthetic microorganisms (pages 1637–1650)

      C.V. González-López, F.G. Acién Fernández, J.M. Fernández-Sevilla, J.F. Sánchez Fernández and E. Molina Grima

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24446

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      A new methodology to use efficiently flue gases as a CO2 source in the production of photosynthetic microorganisms is proposed. The CO2 is absorbed in carbonated solutions, up to 80%, at pH ranges of 8.0–10.0, then the liquid phase is depurated biologically. Anabaena sp. tolerated conditions imposed by the absorption step, converting CO2 into organic matter. The developed process maximizes the efficiency of CO2 use, which is relevant to achieve the commercial production of biofuels from microalgae.

    6. Metabolic profiling reveals growth related FAME productivity and quality of Chlorella sorokiniana with different inoculum sizes (pages 1651–1662)

      Shuhuan Lu, Jiangxin Wang, Yanhong Niu, Jie Yang, Jian Zhou and Yingjin Yuan

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24447

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      To investigate the metabolic relevance between fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production and inoculum size, Lu and coworkers studied the effects of inoculum size on cell growth, lipid accumulation and the metabolism alternations in Chlorella sorokiniana. The partial least-squares to latent structures analysis showed a tight correlation existing between the metabolic profile and the FAME production. The subsequent illumination assay confirmed that light intensity might be the vital limiting factor in the high initial cell density culture.

    7. Microflotation performance for algal separation (pages 1663–1673)

      James Hanotu, H.C. Hemaka Bandulasena and William B. Zimmerman

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24449

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      Three stages of microflotation with formation of large flocs, followed by small flocs, then sludge thickening of the floated algal “blanket” are presented.

    8. Rotating algal biofilm reactor and spool harvester for wastewater treatment with biofuels by-products (pages 1674–1684)

      Logan B. Christenson and Ronald C. Sims

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24451

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      A rotating algal biofilm reactor was designed to test a biofilm-based approach to treating wastewater while producing algae-based biomass to be used in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts. Results indicate that the design is a promising approach to the production and harvesting of algae-based biomass in wastewater.

    9. Bioprocess Engineering and Supporting Technologies

      Generation of a cholesterol-independent, non-GS NS0 cell line through chemical treatment and application for high titer antibody production (pages 1685–1692)

      Jincai Li, Wei Gu, Diane G. Edmondson, Connie Lu, Natarajan Vijayasankaran, Bruno Figueroa, Dave Stevenson, Thomas Ryll and Feng Li

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24450

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      This work demonstrated a rapid approach to generate a cholesterol-independent non-GS NS0 host cell line using the demethylation drug 5-azacytidine. Furthermore, the work showed that the new, cholesterol-independent host is suitable for use as a production host for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. With the same set of transfection vectors used, and the same fed-batch process applied, the top cholesterol-independent clone yielded a titer of 4.5 g/L vs 3.0 g/L by the top cholesterol-dependent clone, with comparable product quality attributes.

    10. The effect of CO2 availability on the growth, iron oxidation and CO2-fixation rates of pure cultures of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (pages 1693–1703)

      C.G. Bryan, C.S. Davis-Belmar, N. van Wyk, M.K. Fraser, D. Dew, G.F Rautenbach and S.T.L. Harrison

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24453

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      The effect of varying available dissolved CO2 concentrations on the growth, iron oxidation and CO2-fixation rates of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum was investigated in a batch stirred tank system. Minimum and optimal dissolved CO2 concentrations for growth were determined. With each organism, the greatest maximum iron oxidation, CO2-fixation and specific growth rates were achieved at dissolved CO2 concentrations less than that corresponding to a normal air gas feed. The results of are discussed in the context of mineral bioleaching systems.

    11. Cellular and Metabolic Engineering

      Metabolic engineering of Lactobacillus casei for production of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (pages 1704–1712)

      Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Antonio Rubio-del-Campo and María J. Yebra

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24475

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      The genes glmS, glmM and glmU coding for glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), phosphoglucosaminemutase (GlmM) and the bi-functional enzyme glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase/ N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase(GlmU)activities in Lactobacillus casei strain BL23, respectively, were identified, cloned and shown to be functional by homologous over-expression. The recombinant L. casei strain PL33 over-expressing simultaneously the genes glmM and glmS showed a 3.47 times increase in GlmS activity and 6.43 times increase in GlmM activity.These incremented activities resulted in about a fourfold increase of the UDP-GlcNAc pool.

    12. Transgene copy number distribution profiles in recombinant CHO cell lines revealed by single cell analyses (pages 1713–1722)

      Luhong He, Christal Winterrowd, Ibrahim Kadura and Christopher Frye

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24428

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      Transgene copy number heterogeneity and distribution drift during sub-culturing in clonally derived CHO cell line 16F9 are revealed by single cell qPCR analyses. Forty-eight single cells per generation were obtained by FACS and directly assayed in 96-well plates. The Ct values, indicating transgene copies, revealed a bimodal distribution of transgenes. One population lost the transgene completely during aging (40 Ct = transgene negative), which contributed to a decline in productivity for 16F9 over time. 16F9 is not suitable for clinical applications.

    13. Engineering novel Lec1 glycosylation mutants in CHO–DUKX cells: Molecular insights and effector modulation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (pages 1723–1734)

      Xiaotian Zhong, Cecilia Cooley, Nilufer Seth, Z. Sean Juo, Ella Presman, Nicole Resendes, Ravi Kumar, Martin Allen, Lidia Mosyak, Mark Stahl, Will Somers and Ronald Kriz

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24448

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      The present study has identified six novel non-sense mutations and three new loss-of-function mutations in the MgatI gene (encoding GnTI) through chemical mutagenesis and lectin selection in dhfr CHO–DUKX cells. The data has revealed some molecular insights of these novel mutations as well as new mechanistic details and potential effector modulation function of the GnTI enzyme.

    14. Use of sequential-batch fermentations to characterize the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on the anaerobic stoichiometry and kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (pages 1735–1744)

      A.L.B. Cruz, A.J. Verbon, L.J. Geurink, P.J.T. Verheijen, J.J. Heijnen and W.M. van Gulik

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24454

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      A sequential batch setup was used to obtain a consistent set of data describing the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on the anaerobic growth kinetics and stoichiometry of S. ceverisiae. By applying data reconciliation to the measured time patterns of substrate, biomass, carbon dioxide and byproducts it was possible to find best estimates for all uptake and secretion rates. Interestingly it was found that most of the biomass-specific rates have the same temperature dependency, leading to a temperature independent batch stoichiometry.

    15. Engineering Science of Biological Systems

      The effect of surface charge property on Escherichia coli initial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation (pages 1745–1754)

      Akihiko Terada, Keisuke Okuyama, Megumi Nishikawa, Satoshi Tsuneda and Masaaki Hosomi

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24429

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      Initial adhesion of E. coli cells onto substrata with different surface charge properties determines subsequent biofilm formation. Radiation-induced graft polymerization was employed to modify substrata with negatively-charged and positively-charged surfaces, termed SS and DEA sheets, respectively. Due to electrostatic interaction between E. coli cells and each substratum, E. coli cell density and viability onto SS and DEA sheets is completely distinct, which affects matured E. coli biofilm architecture and its robustness against high liquid shear washing.

    16. Hydrodynamic and kinetic study of cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei with pellet morphology (pages 1755–1768)

      Liang Yu, Yapeng Chao, Pierre Wensel and Shulin Chen

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24433

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      A model describing flow field and dO2 profiles in the bioreactor was constructed to describe the relationship between rheology, pellet formation, and kinetics. Validation of the model by fermentation experiments was successful to a certain extent and an agitation speed of 400 rpm was found to yield a two-fold higher enzyme activity compared to the fermentation at 100 rpm.

    17. Friction coefficients for mechanically damaged bovine articular cartilage (pages 1769–1778)

      Liu Shi, Daniel B. Brunski, Vassilios I. Sikavitsas, Matthew B. Johnson and Alberto Striolo

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24435

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      A pin-on-disc tribometer was used to measure the friction coefficient of pristine and mechanically damaged cartilage samples in aqueous lubricant solutions. Synovial fluid, as well as PBS solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide) or hyaluronic acid provide good lubrication for pristine and, more importantly, even damaged cartilage. It is possible that all three formulations enhance the interstitial fluid pressurization lubrication mechanism.

    18. Continuum heterogeneous biofilm model—A simple and accurate method for effectiveness factor determination (pages 1779–1790)

      Elio Emilio Gonzo, Stefan Wuertz and Veronica B. Rajal

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24441

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      The procedure introduced here is a general framework that can be used to describe the behavior of a heterogeneous biofilm and to calculate the rate of substrate utilization through estimation of the effectiveness factor. This approach allowed the authors to evaluate the effect of different parameters that characterize a heterogeneous biofilm and the kinetics of the rate of substrate utilization on the behavior of the biological system. The procedure can take into account also the external mass transfer resistance.

    19. Topographic cues of nano-scale height direct neuronal growth pattern (pages 1791–1797)

      Koby Baranes, Nathan Chejanovsky, Noa Alon, Amos Sharoni and Orit Shefi

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24444

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      The authors use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nanoscale heights. The neuronal processes are aligned with the nano topographic cues. They find that the interaction strength clearly depends on the ridges' height. Neuronal processes have strong interactions with ridges even as low as 10 nm. Their study highlights the sensitivity of growing neurites to nano-scale cues and underlines the adhesion as a key mechanism in directing neuronal growth.

    20. Systems Biotechnology

      Genome-scale metabolic representation of Amycolatopsis balhimycina (pages 1798–1807)

      Wanwipa Vongsangnak, Luís Filipe Figueiredo, Jochen Förster, Tilmann Weber, Jette Thykaer, Evi Stegmann, Wolfgang Wohlleben and Jens Nielsen

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24436

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      Genome-scale model of A. balhimycina metabolism: reconstruction and its application.

    21. Tissue Engineering and Delivery Systems

      Collagen type IV-specific tripeptides for selective adhesion of endothelial and smooth muscle cells (pages 1808–1816)

      Kei Kanie, Yuji Narita, Yingzi Zhao, Fumiaki Kuwabara, Makoto Satake, Susumu Honda, Hiroaki Kaneko, Tomohiko Yoshioka, Mina Okochi, Hiroyuki Honda and Ryuji Kato

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24459

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      To control the balance of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (cell-selectivity) and to minimize the risk with vascular implantation, Kanie and coworkers investigated collagen type IV, the major extracellular matrix (ECM) in the basement membrane (BM), for cell-selective peptides. With our peptide array-based screening combined with in silico analysis, peptides with a cell-selective property were effectively found. One of the EC-selective peptides provided cell selectivity when introduced to the electrospun fine-fiber for the vascular graft material.

    22. Closed system isolation and scalable expansion of human placental mesenchymal stem cells (pages 1817–1826)

      N.E. Timmins, M. Kiel, M. Günther, C. Heazlewood, M.R. Doran, G. Brooke and K. Atkinson

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24425

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      Timmins and coworkers describe the initial development of a closed process for bulk isolation of MSC from human placenta, and subsequent cultivation on microcarriers in scalable single-use bioreactor systems. Based on their initial data, the authors estimate that a single placenta may be sufficient to produce over 7,000 doses of therapeutic MSC using a large scale process.

    23. Evaluation of heart tissue viability under redox-magnetohydrodynamics conditions: Toward fine-tuning flow in biological microfluidics applications (pages 1827–1834)

      Lih Tyng Cheah, Ingrid Fritsch, Stephen J. Haswell and John Greenman

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24426

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      A peristaltically perfused, microfluidic system with stimulating electrodes for heart tissue biopsies was used to evaluate tissue viability under redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD) conditions. Redox-MHD is attractive for fine-tuning fluid flow around tissues for “tissue-on-a-chip” applications. Viability was indicated by assaying for lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of cell injury. Redox-MHD flow produced by ionic current from the stimulating electrodes in buffer containing hexaammineruthenium(III) in a magnetic field was observable over thermal convection and peristaltic flow and caused no additional tissue insult.

    24. Microparticle delivery of Interleukin-7 to boost T-cell proliferation and survival (pages 1835–1843)

      Nick X. Wang, Douglas A. Bazdar, Scott F. Sieg and Horst A. von Recum

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24431

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      Interleukin-7, a cytokine that has been shown to boost both CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts and a potential vaccine adjuvant, was encapsulated in PLGA microparticles. Release from these particles was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Controlled delivery of IL-7 in mice demonstrated biological activity in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, which was consistent with previously reported results using daily injections.

    25. Macro-scale topology optimization for controlling internal shear stress in a porous scaffold bioreactor (pages 1844–1854)

      K. Youssef, J.J. Mack, M.L. Iruela-Arispe and L.-S. Bouchard

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24440

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      A versatile approach to controlling internal shear stress in porous scaffold bioreactors is presented based on topology optimization. Micro-channels are patterned in the scaffold to yield a target shear stress distribution. Unlike conventional methods to optimize material microstructure by changing the chemical composition, the new method could yield arbitrary spatial distributions. For example, the target distribution can be uniform or could include gradients. The systematic optimization of the distribution will enable the design of improved cell culture protocols.

    26. Skin tissue generation by laser cell printing (pages 1855–1863)

      Lothar Koch, Andrea Deiwick, Sabrina Schlie, Stefanie Michael, Martin Gruene, Vincent Coger, Daniela Zychlinski, Axel Schambach, Kerstin Reimers, Peter M. Vogt and Boris Chichkov

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24455

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      With the aim of engineering functional tissue, a laser-based cell printing technique is used to arrange living cells in 3D patterns as multicellular grafts analogous to native skin archetype. Cell functions and the tissue formation process are studied, e.g. by analyzing the formation of adherens and gap junctions, which are fundamental for tissue morphogenesis and cohesion.

  5. Communication to the Editors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Articles
    6. Communication to the Editors
    7. Communications to the Editor
    1. Biocatalysis, Protein Engineering, and Nanobiotechnology

      BESSICC, a COSMO-RS based tool for in silico solvent screening of biocatalyzed reactions (pages 1864–1868)

      P. Braiuca, I. Khaliullin, V. Švedas, L. Knapic, M. Fermeglia, P.J. Halling and L. Gardossi

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24439

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      The algorithm to calculate the effect of solvent on the equilibrium of biocatalyzed reactions is developed. Based on COSMO-RS theory, the algorithm is able to predict final mixture composition in any solvent starting from one single experiment. With good accuracy and speed the algorithm becomes a useful tool for optimization of enzymatic processes virtually of any kind in terms of the solvent being used.

    2. Polyphenolic disaccharides endow proteins with unusual resistance to aggregation (pages 1869–1874)

      Ali Reza A. Ladiwala, Joseph M. Perchiacca, Zachary S. Fishman, Moumita Bhattacharya, Anne Marie Hickey, Bonnie G. Domigan, Jonathan S. Dordick and Peter M. Tessier

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24460

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      Protein aggregation is a common problem when purifying and formulating proteins. The authors report that polyphenolic disaccharides such as rutin and naringin are unusually effective at preventing the aggregation of diverse globular proteins.

    3. Synthetic Biology

      Switching control of an essential gene for reprogramming of cellular phenotypes in Escherichia coli (pages 1875–1880)

      Byung Eun Min, Sang Woo Seo and Gyoo Yeol Jung

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24468

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      A platform system for dynamic control of an essential gene is developed in this study. The expression of fusA was successfully regulated by the extracellular stimulus. An additional module on this system could switch gears to a desired phenotype.

  6. Communications to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Spotlights
    5. Articles
    6. Communication to the Editors
    7. Communications to the Editor
    1. Systems Biotechnology

      Development of a thermostable β-glucuronidase-based reporter system for monitoring gene expression in hyperthermophiles (pages 1881–1886)

      Maryam Honarbakhsh, Aramis A. Villafane, Ilona Ruhl, David Sannino and Elisabetta Bini

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.24432

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      The development of a new reporter system based on the β-glucuronidase gene, gusB, from the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus is presented. The activity of the enzyme, characterized under different conditions, is optimal at 75°C, and is maintained after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of this reporter for in vivo promoter studies in Sulfolobus, by monitoring a reporter plasmid carrying a fusion between a copper-responsive promoter and gusB.

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