Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Cover image for Vol. 111 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 111, Issue 3

Pages C1–C1, fmi–fmv, vi–vi, 425–637

  1. Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
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  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
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  3. Features

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
    1. Spotlight

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  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
    1. Bioengineering virus-like particles as vaccines (pages 425–440)

      Linda H.L. Lua, Natalie K. Connors, Frank Sainsbury, Yap P. Chuan, Nani Wibowo and Anton P.J. Middelberg

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25159

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      A virus-like particle (VLP) technology that combines the benefits of E.coli high productivities and controllable cell-free assembly of contaminant-free capsomeres into modular VLPs, presenting an innovative manufacturing bioprocess for cost-effective production of VLP-based vaccines. Capsomere-based vaccine platform simplifies bioprocessing requirements and further increases the speed of vaccine manufacturing.

  5. Perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
    1. Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications (pages 441–453)

      Akhilesh K. Gaharwar, Nicholas A. Peppas and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25160

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      Advanced biomaterials with controlled physical, chemical, electrical and biological properties are required to facilitate the formation of functional tissues. Nanocomposite hydrogels may be used to obtain unique material properties with tailored functionality for various biomedical and biotechnological applications. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the field of nanocomposite hydrogels with emphasis on regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and bioinstrumentation.

  6. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
    1. Biocatalysis, Protein Engineering, and Nanobiotechnology

      Simultaneous improvement of specificity and affinity of aptamers against Streptococcus mutans by in silico maturation for biosensor development (pages 454–461)

      Nasa Savory, Yayoi Takahashi, Kaori Tsukakoshi, Hijiri Hasegawa, Madoka Takase, Koichi Abe, Wataru Yoshida, Stefano Ferri, Shizuko Kumazawa, Koji Sode and Kazunori Ikebukuro

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25111

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      The authors demonstrated the simultaneous improvement of affinity and specificity of DNA aptamers for Streptococcus mutans by a total of 12 cycles of in silico maturation with a discovery of a functional core sequence that was important for target binding. Furthermore, the authors performed a flow-through detection of S. mutans at a concentration range of 1 × 105–108 CFU/mL using the evolved aptamer immobilized on gold colloids (AuNP). In silico maturation would facilitate aptamer development with improved functionality for biosensor development.

    2. Cis-suppression to arrest protein aggregation in mammalian cells (pages 462–474)

      Simpson Gregoire, Shaojie Zhang, Joseph Costanzo, Kelly Wilson, Erik J. Fernandez and Inchan Kwon

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25119

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      Here the authors show a novel protein engineering strategy to inhibit protein aggregation in mammalian cells. As a model system, SOD1A4V variant associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was investigated. Using computational protein design program RosettaDesign, Phe20 was identified as a key residue responsible for destabilization of SOD1A4V variant. Two rounds of mammalian-cell based screening of the mutants containing additional mutations, three novel SOD1A4V variants with a significantly reduced aggregation propensity inside cells were selected. The work described here clearly demonstrates that the combination of computational design and cell-based screening can be utilized to identify mutations substantially reducing aggregation of a protein in mammalian cells.

    3. Fluorogen-activating-proteins as universal affinity biosensors for immunodetection (pages 475–484)

      Eugenio Gallo, Kalin V. Vasilev and Jonathan Jarvik

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25127

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      This report highlights an affinity reagent approach for detecting primary antibodies on live or fixed cells using fluorogen-activating-proteins (FAPs) for visualization. The authors demonstrate novel features of fluorescence signal manipulation not available using with conventional affinity systems including changing or eliminating the detection signal after specific binding of the reagent to the sample.

    4. Biofuels and Environmental Biotechnology

      Investigation of lignin deposition on cellulose during hydrothermal pretreatment, its effect on cellulose hydrolysis, and underlying mechanisms (pages 485–492)

      Hongjia Li, Yunqiao Pu, Rajeev Kumar, Arthur J. Ragauskas and Charles E. Wyman

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25108

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      In this study, lignin droplets from poplar wood relocated onto the Avicel surface during hydrothermal pretreatment and significantly impeded cellulose hydrolysis. NMR results showed higher S/G ratios in deposited lignin than the initial lignin in poplar wood. Blockage of the cellulose surface by lignin droplets was confirmed as the main cause of cellulase inhibition. The results give new insights into the fate of lignin in hydrothermal pretreatment and its effects on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    5. Hydrocarbon production in high density Botryococcus braunii race B continuous culture (pages 493–503)

      Waqas Khatri, Robert Hendrix, Tom Niehaus, Joe Chappell and Wayne R. Curtis

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25126

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      Continuous culture of the hydrocarbon producing algae Botryococcus braunii is used to demonstrate oil productivities an order of magnitude higher than previous reports for botryococcene-producing race B. Oil content is roughly 25% of culture mass and a trickle-film bioreactor is used to grow to extremely high cell concentrations in excess of 20 grams dry weight per liter.

    6. Bioprocess Engineering and Supporting Technologies

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      Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images (pages 504–517)

      Nicolas Jaccard, Lewis D. Griffin, Ana Keser, Rhys J. Macown, Alexandre Super, Farlan S. Veraitch and Nicolas Szita

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25115

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      The authors present a method for the determination of adherent cell culture characteristics based on phase contrast microscopy images. It is quick, easy to use and robust enough to accommodate non-optimal imaging conditions often encountered in cell culture laboratories. Thoroughly validated image processing algorithms were used to non-invasively monitor culture confluency, cell density and cell morphology. It was also used in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy to monitor spatial and temporal expression patterns of a fluorescent reporter.

    7. Transcriptome dynamics of transgene amplification in Chinese hamster ovary cells (pages 518–528)

      Nandita Vishwanathan, Huong Le, Nitya M. Jacob, Yung-Shyeng Tsao, Sze-Wai Ng, Bernard Loo, Zhong Liu, Anne Kantardjieff and Wei-Shou Hu

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25117

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      Transcriptome analysis was performed on CHO cells undergoing selection and amplification of transgene and also on cell clones of high and low productivity. Amplification results in a moderate increase in transgene transcript level, but wide spread alterations in transcriptome. Many genes transcriptionally altered during cell line development are common to those differentially expressed between high and low producing cells. The consensus genes among conditions giving rise to high productivity, may constitute a hyper-productivity gene set and be used to facilitate cell line development.

    8. Bioseparations and Downstream Processing

      The osmotic pressure of highly concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions: Effect of solution conditions (pages 529–536)

      Elaheh Binabaji, Suma Rao and Andrew L. Zydney

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25104

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      Osmotic pressure data obtained for highly purified monoclonal antibody solutions over a range of pH and ionic strength up to concentrations of 250 g/L.

    9. Demonstration of in situ product recovery of butyric acid via CO2-facilitated pH swings and medium development in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (pages 537–544)

      Eric C. Peterson and Andrew J. Daugulis

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25106

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      The use of CO2 to achieve pH drops improves partitioning of butyric acid in a polymer-loaded two-phase partitioning bioreactor. The technique is beneficial for in situ product recovery, as it does not result in ion accumulation and subsequent osmotic stress.

    10. Effects of a pressure release on virus retention with the Ultipor DV20 membrane (pages 545–551)

      Melissa A. Woods and Andrew L. Zydney

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25112

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      Confocal laser microscopy shows fluorescently-labeled bacteriophage previously captured in DV20 membrane migrate deeper into filter, forming a second “capture zone” after a transient release in transmembrane pressure during virus filtration.

    11. Improved isoelectric focusing chromatography on strong anion exchange media via a new model that custom designs mobile phases using simple buffers (pages 552–564)

      Derek Y.C. Choy, A. Louise Creagh and Charles Haynes

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25122

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      A new model is described that combines multiple-chemical and adsorption-equilibria theory to enable in silico tailoring of elution pH profiles during isoelectric chromatofocusing using mixtures of simple buffers. The model is shown to provide a versatile platform for optimizing and conducting ICF of protein mixtures on strong anion exchange media.

    12. Cellular and Metabolic Engineering

      Induction of apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure of resistive barrier cold plasma (pages 565–574)

      Magesh Thiyagarajan, Heather Anderson and Xavier F. Gonzales

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25114

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      Assessment of cell death response of human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure to novel cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) generated reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are presented. The authors discovered that CAP generated RNS play a significant role in the anti-tumor potential of CAP and show a possible application of modified CAP devices in tumor therapy. The investigation and characterization on the cell death response of leukemia cells to RNS produced by resistive barrier cold atmospheric plasma is novel.

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      Central metabolic responses to the overproduction of fatty acids in Escherichia coli based on 13C-metabolic flux analysis (pages 575–585)

      Lian He, Yi Xiao, Nikodimos Gebreselassie, Fuzhong Zhang, Maciek R. Antoniewicz, Yinjie J. Tang and Lifeng Peng

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25124

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      The authors engineered a fatty acid producing E. coli that produced fatty acids with 48% of the theoretical yield. To reveal the metabolic bottlenecks, the authors investigated its central metabolism using 13C-MFA and transcription analysis. They found that the transhydrogenases were flexibly regulated to balance cofactors for fatty acid production, whereas overproducing fatty acids was limited by energy supply due to high cellular maintenance energy caused by cell membrane stress. New metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to further enhance fatty acid production.

    14. Engineering Science of Biological Systems

      Simultaneous method for analyzing dimerization and signaling of G-protein-coupled receptor in yeast by dual-color reporter system (pages 586–596)

      Yasuyuki Nakamura, Norika Takemoto, Jun Ishii and Akihiko Kondo

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25125

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      This article describes a platform for simultaneous analysis of dimerization and signaling by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The platform employs two yeast-based systems, one for a split-ubiquitin two-hybrid assay and a second for a G-protein signaling assay. To achieve simultaneous detection, the system incorporates dual-color fluorescence reporter genes encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a far-red derivative of the tetrameric fluorescent protein DsRed-Express2 (E2-Crimson).

    15. Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells (pages 597–607)

      Jisun L. Song, Kelly H. Au, Kimberly T. Huynh and Aaron I. Packman

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25107

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      The authors developed a single-inlet microfluidic flow cell to support biofilm growth under a controlled flow field, and a double-inlet microfluidic flow cell to culture biofilms under a diffusion-based chemical gradient. Microfluidics enable the precise control of the physicochemical environment, whose effects are intertwined with microbial processes and feedbacks. The biofilm responses to the hydrodynamic conditions and a glucose gradient are detailed.

    16. Synthetic Biology

      Combinatorial engineering of mevalonate pathway for improved amorpha-4,11-diene production in budding yeast (pages 608–617)

      Jifeng Yuan and Chi Bun Ching

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25123

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      Novel δ-integration platform for combinatorial engineering of mevalonate pathway. Antibiotic selection marker is used to achieve multiple genome integrations at δ-sites of yeast chromosomes by modulating the concentration of antibiotics.

    17. Tissue Engineering and Delivery Systems

      Alginate encapsulation parameters influence the differentiation of microencapsulated embryonic stem cell aggregates (pages 618–631)

      Jenna L. Wilson, Mohamad Ali Najia, Rabbia Saeed and Todd C. McDevitt

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/bit.25121

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      Microencapsulation of cells within microbeads is useful in bioprocessing applications due to the afforded protection from hydrodynamic forces, increased microenvironmental control, and ease of oxygen and nutrient transport. Despite previous studies examining alginate microbeads for stem cell expansion and directed differentiation, the impact of alginate encapsulation parameters on stem cell phenotype has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically examine the effects of varying alginate compositions on microencapsulated embryonic stem cell phenotype.

  7. Communication to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover
    3. Contents
    4. Features
    5. Reviews
    6. Perspective
    7. Articles
    8. Communication to the Editor
    1. Engineering Science of Biological Systems

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