• 1
    Vincent C. Patient Safety. Wiley Blackwell: London, 2010.
  • 2
    Wu AW. Medical error: the second victim. The doctor who makes the mistake needs help too. BMJ 2000; 320: 726727.
  • 3
    Gawande AA, Thomas EJ, Zinner MJ, Brennan TA. The incidence and nature of surgical adverse events in Colorado and Utah in 1992. Surgery 1999; 126: 6675.
  • 4
    Leape LL, Brennan TA, Laird N, Lawthers AG, Localio AR, Barnes BA et al. The nature of adverse events in hospitalized patients. Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study II. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 377384.
  • 5
    Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps G, Russell T, Dyrbye L, Satele D et al. Burnout and medical errors among American surgeons. Ann Surg 2010; 251: 9951000.
  • 6
    Fahrenkopf AM, Sectish TC, Barger LK, Sharek PJ, Lewin D, Chiang VW et al. Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2008; 336: 488491.
  • 7
    Firth-Cozens J, Greenhalgh J. Doctors' perceptions of the links between stress and lowered clinical care. Soc Sci Med 1997; 44: 10171022.
  • 8
    Taylor C, Graham J, Potts H, Candy J, Richards M, Ramirez A. Impact of hospital consultants' poor mental health on patient care. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190: 268269.
  • 9
    West CP, Huschka MM, Novotny PJ, Sloan JA, Kolars JC, Habermann TM et al. Association of perceived medical errors with resident distress and empathy: a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA 2006; 296: 10711078.
  • 10
    Dindo D, Clavien PA. What is a surgical complication? World J Surg 2008; 32: 939941.
  • 11
    Dindo D, Demartines N, Clavien PA. Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey. Ann Surg 2004; 240: 205213.
  • 12
    Smith JA, Osborn M. Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In Qualitative Psychology: a Practical Guide to Research Methods, Smith JA (ed.). Sage: London, 2003; 5180.
  • 13
    Balch CM, Fresichlag JA, Shanafelt TD. Stress and burnout among surgeons: understanding and managing the syndrome and avoiding the adverse consequences. Arch Surg 2009; 144: 371376.
  • 14
    Chan DK, Gallagher TH, Reznick R, Levinson W. How surgeons disclose medical errors to patients: a study using standardized patients. Surgery 2005; 138: 851858.
  • 15
    Goldstone AR, Callaghan CJ, Mackay J, Charman S, Nashef SA. Should surgeons take a break after an intraoperative death? Attitude survey and outcome evaluation. BMJ 2004; 328: 379.
  • 16
    Pierluissi E, Fischer MA, Campbell AR, Landefeld CS. Discussion of medical errors in morbidity and mortality conferences. JAMA 2003; 290: 28382842.
  • 17
    Smith IC, Jones MW. Surgeons' attitudes to intraoperative death: questionnaire survey. BMJ 2001; 322: 896897.
  • 18
    Taylor D, Hassan MA, Luterman A, Rodning CB. Unexpected intraoperative patient death: the imperatives of family- and surgeon-centered care. Arch Surg 2008; 143: 8792.
  • 19
    Wetzel CM, Kneebone RL, Woloshynowych M, Nestel D, Moorthy K, Kidd J et al. The effects of stress on surgical performance. Am J Surg 2006; 191: 510.
  • 20
    Schwappach DL, Boluarte TA. The emotional impact of medical error involvement on physicians: a call for leadership and organisational accountability. Swiss Med Wkly 2009; 139: 915.
  • 21
    Sirriyeh R, Lawton R, Gardner P, Armitage G. Coping with medical error: a systematic review of papers to assess the effects of involvement in medical errors on healthcare professionals' psychological well-being. Qual Saf Health Care 2010; 19: e43.
  • 22
    Yardley L. Demonstrating validity in qualitative psychology. In Qualitative Psychology: a Practical Guide to Research Numbers, Smith JA (ed.). Sage: London, 2013; 236251.
  • 23
    Glaser BG, Strauss AL. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies For Qualitative Research. Aldine Transaction: Chicago, 1967.
  • 24
    Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer: New York, 1984.
  • 25
    Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping. Eur J Personality 1987; 1: 141169.
  • 26
    Malt UF, Karlehagen S, Hoff H, Herrstromer U, Hildingson K, Tibell E et al. The effect of major railway accidents on the psychological health of train drivers – I. Acute psychological responses to accident. J Psychosom Res 1993; 37: 793805.
  • 27
    Karlehagen S, Malt UF, Hoff H, Tibell E, Herrstromer U, Hildingson K et al. The effect of major railway accidents on the psychological health of train drivers – II. A longitudinal study of the one-year outcome after the accident. J Psychosom Res 1993; 37: 807817.
  • 28
    Wu AW, Folkman S, McPhee SJ, Lo B. Do house officers learn from their mistakes? JAMA 1991; 265: 20892094.
  • 29
    Brewin CR, Firth-Cozens J. Dependency and self-criticism as predictors of depression in young doctors. J Occup Health Psychol 1997; 2: 242246.
  • 30
    Tyssen R, Vaglum P. Mental health problems among young doctors: an updated review of prospective studies. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2002; 10: 154165.
  • 31
    Vaglum P, Falkum E. Self-criticism, dependency and depressive symptoms in a nationwide sample of Norwegian physicians. J Affect Disord 1999; 52: 153159.
  • 32
    Borges NJ, Osmon WR. Personality and medical specialty choice: technique orientation versus people orientation. J Vocat Behav 2001; 58: 2235.
  • 33
    Orlander JD, Barber TW, Fincke BG. The morbidity and mortality conference: the delicate nature of learning from error. Acad Med 2002; 77: 10011006.
  • 34
    Kaldjian LC, Forman-Hoffman VL, Jones EW, Wu BJ, Levi BH, Rosenthal GE. Do faculty and resident physicians discuss their medical errors? J Med Ethics 2008; 34: 717722.
  • 35
    Shanafelt TD, Oreskovich MR, Dyrbye LN, Satele DV, Hanks JB, Sloan JA et al. Avoiding burnout: the personal health habits and wellness practices of US surgeons. Ann Surg 2012; 255: 625633.
  • 36
    Oreskovich MR, Kaups KL, Balch CM, Hanks JB, Satele D, Sloan J et al. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders among American surgeons. Arch Surg 2012; 147: 168174.
  • 37
    Dyrbye LN, Freischlag J, Kaups KL, Oreskovich MR, Satele DV, Hanks JB et al. Work–home conflicts have a substantial impact on career decisions that affect the adequacy of the surgical workforce. Arch Surg 2012; 147: 933939.
  • 38
    Pratt S, Kenney L, Scott SD, Wu AW. How to develop a second victim support program: a toolkit for health care organizations. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2012; 38: 235240, 193.