Free-space nano-optical devices and integration: Design, fabrication, and manufacturing



Lithographically defined optical nanostructures can be used to design various fundamental optical functions, including polarization, phase, refraction, and wavelength management. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and manufacturing of free-space discrete and integrated optical devices based on optical nanostructures. These devices are fabricated using a nanomanufacturing platform based on wafer-level nanoreplication with mold and nanopattern transfer by means of nanolithography. The nanoreplication process, based on imprinting a single-layer spin-coated ultraviolet (UV)-curable resist, achieved excellent nanopatterning fidelity and on-wafer uniformity with high throughput. It also achieved excellent wafer-level performance and yield. Nano-optical devices (NODs) (e.g., infrared polarizers and true zero-order quarter waveplates) and integrated NODs (e.g., monolithically integrated semi-isolators and visible circular polarizers) may be fabricated using the nanomanufacturing platform. The developed technology is suitable for the high-throughput and low-cost manufacturing needed to commercialize nanostructure-based optical devices and integrated optical devices. The success of the developed nano-engineering technology will lead to a redefinition of optical device manufacturing and integration and the functional and economic displacement of traditional bulk-optics devices. © 2005 Lucent Technologies Inc.