Aspirin, the most widely used drug in the world, has been known to mankind for over a century. It is not only the pharmacologically active entity, but is also biotransformed into a major metabolite, i.e. salicylic acid, which also exhibits similar pharmacologic/pharmacodynamic properties. Hence it is necessary to quantitate aspirin along with its metabolite(s) in various biological matrices accurately and precisely to correlate with pharmacological/pharmacodynamic activity. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of various bioanalytical methods (HPLC and LC-MS/MS) that have been reported for direct quantitation of aspirin along with its metabolite(s). The review also provides general information on sample collection, sample processing, internal standard selection, conditions for chromatographic separation, succinct validation data and applicable conclusions for reported assays in a structured manner. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.